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LATAM community needs your help

2020.10.01 00:04 Another_reddit_useer LATAM community needs your help

Sorry if my English is not good, today Riot Games LATAM made a statement canceling the relegation promotion, this tournament consists of facing the worst 2 teams in the LLA vs the two best teams in Tier 2, almost 2 months ago defined the teams that would play this tournament, since then they have been preparing to give the maximum performance, the cancellation throws away all the investment, effort, time of the Tier 2 winning teams.
The date was moved to September 2021, it is clear that this harms the 4 teams, Riot Latam was not interested in listening to these teams to reach a resolution of which the most requested was that the 2 winning teams be given a spot and the league will be played with 10 teams. I make this post so that this issue reaches the international community and a more coherent solution is determined. This problem affects the entire Latin American region because no tier 2 team will want to invest money, time and effort again.
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2020.09.29 20:29 BlancheFromage Today's Conspiracy Theory!! 2030!!

So you know how the next "significant" milestone the SGI has to look forward to is May 3, 2030.
May 3 - because Toda and Ikeda
2030 - because of Ikeda's deciding when the Soka Gakkai's forerunner organization, Soka Kyoiku Gakkai, an educators' group formed by Tsunesaburo Makiguchi, was founded in order to make his "Seven Bells" numbers end on the right year (1979). The Soka Kyoiku Gakkai held its initial meeting in 1937 so shouldn't that be the founding date?
So "2030" is a meaningless, manufactured "anniversary" to get the culty sheeple ginned up toward. What are their assigned goals going to be? My guesses:
Anything else?
Oh, wait - almost forgot about the Conspiracy Theory! There's one for the year 2030 - not lying!
Where's it coming from? Another ultraconservative, fascist secret society. The infamous and notorious Club of Rome that Ikeda bought his way into.
Here's your background:
Ikeda is an honorary member of the Club of Rome, right from their website The founding of the Club of Rome by Rockefeller in Bellagio, Italy Some more unraveling of the Club of Rome - take a look at the line up The Club of Rome has indicated that genocide should be used to eliminate people who they refer to as "useless eaters." The War Against Population - NSA and Club of Rome Yes, we live in a dirty world with the dirty elites running it - more on The Club of Rome
SGI President Daisaku Ikeda sent a congratulatory message to the 50th Anniversary Conference of the Club of Rome held Oct. 17–18, 2018, read at the annual general assembly on October 16, 2018.
This year marks the 110th birth anniversary of Dr. [Aurelio] Peccei, the Club’s co-founder. The memory of our encounters is indelibly etched in my heart and mind. Like a warm and trusting father, he shared with me—frankly and passionately—his most deeply held beliefs and insights. The impression that he made, and my sense of gratitude, will remain with me always.
blah blah blah
blah blah blah
I would like to close this message of felicitation voicing my vow to continue to support the work of the Club of Rome by working with the world’s youth based on a sense of shared responsibility for the human future. - Message to the 50th Anniversary Conference of the Club of Rome
Before It Is Too Late (hardcover) by Aurelio Peccei and Daisaku Ikeda..........Price: $32.50 M/O#: 1104
Aurelio Peccei is the late Westernewartime resistance fighter, industrialist, and founder of the first think tanks to severely assess humanity's chances for survival. SGI President Ikeda and Mr. Peccei present their views alternately as individual statements and dialogues on the complex web of natural and human-made problems threatening the habitability of the planet Earth. Source
When I was a member I read "Before Its Too Late," written by both Ikeda and Aurelio Peccei, founder and first president of Club of Rome. I used to think the CoR was a great organization because Ikeda was in it and praised it! That's what goes on in members' minds, if the SGI or Ikeda is associated with something, it must be good, instead of investigating a person or organization based on its own merits.
What is unfortunate about SGI members is their lack critical thinking, as I lacked. Over the years being away from SGI I have made conscious efforts to apply logic to any situation, ask questions: who, what, where, when, and why. Those under mind control (as I was) do not ask these questions -- blind faith, denial, even where there is evidence that proves otherwise. When I discovered what a rotten organization the CoR is, I was horrified to think I indirectly supported it because of my involvement with the SGI.
The hypocrisy of Ikeda and the SGI is stunning -- they use the good principles of Buddhism for evil purpose. What happened to the "sanctity of life"? How does that fit in with the belief depopulation is good for the planet? We know the SGI is a cult, but I question: is the SGI a death cult? Or perhaps all cults are death cults? Just look to the cults of Jim Jones and Heavens Gate, for example; the members involved in those cults ended up dead.
You hit the target that mind-control blinds all of them. So true. Source
Now here's Club of Rome's position - the sanitized version:
Four decades ago, the Club of Rome predicted looming economic collapse in its iconic report The Limits to Growth. An update of the analysis sees much the same picture.
On the eve of one of the twentieth century’s most notable economic shocks — the 1973 oil crisis — an influential group of researchers released a now-iconic report entitled The Limits to Growth.
The work, which received wide attention and proved controversial, painted a bleak picture of humanity’s future. Left unchecked, it said, economic and population growth would deplete the planet’s resources and cause economic collapse around 2070.
More than four decades later, the report’s main conclusions are still valid, according to a group of independent researchers who have updated the work using more-sophisticated analytical tools. Like the 1972 report, the latest work was commissioned by the Club of Rome, a group of liberal scientists, economists and industrialists that was founded in 1968.
Whoever's paying gets to dictate the conclusion.
The update, released on 17 October in Rome for the club’s 50th anniversary, makes for a sobering read. Although its conclusions are not quite as drastic as those of the original report, it says that humanity finds itself in something of a catch-22.
Business-as-usual or accelerated economic growth will mean that the world will not be able to meet the United Nations’ sustainable development goals (SDGs) — a suite of social, environmental and prosperity targets for 2030 — the authors conclude. And even if governments were to substantially strengthen what the authors call “conventional” policies to meet social goals such as the eradication of poverty and hunger, and achieving quality education for all, they would be in danger of missing environmental goals.
“It is quite disturbing to see that we’re still facing the same dilemma the Club of Rome described almost 50 years ago,” says Julia Steinberger, an ecological economist at the University of Leeds, UK.
Conventional policies won’t do
"Everybody's just gotta CHANT!"
The original report was a quantitative analysis based on a computer model that calculated likely future outcomes for the world’s economy. Criticism focused mainly on the authors’ assumptions about how long natural resources would last.
Some economists called the book’s pessimistic conclusions “irresponsible nonsense
Did someone say "SGI"??
while others criticized the validity of the model — World3, a dynamic economic model developed by US economist Dennis Meadow, co-author of the book — that the authors had used to predict energy consumption, pollution and population growth.
The latest version of the report was compiled by researchers with the Stockholm Resilience Centre and the BI Norwegian Business School in Oslo. They used an Earth-system model that combines socio-economic and biophysical variables, alongside a wealth of historical and new socio-economic data, to draw up their conclusions.
This model’s elements interact with the passage of time, and it is much more robust than World3, says Steinberger.
The researchers found that the world is currently on track to meet only 10 of the 17 SDGs by 2030. Efforts to satisfy social SDGs with conventional policy tools will come at the price of unsustainable or wasteful use of natural resources such as water, land and energy. Hence, environmental goals, including stabilizing climate, reducing pollution and maintaining biodiversity, could fall by the wayside, they say.
To prevent human civilization from more environmental damage than it might be able to endure, the authors call on world leaders to consider policies that they deem unconventional.
Novel: Scientists FORCED to chant NMRK...FOR SCIENCE!!! Or "Why faith-based books should be BANNED!"
Only more extreme economic and behavioural changes will allow the world to achieve all 17 SDGs together, the authors say.
These policies might include rapid phase-out of fossil fuels , greater use of family planning to stabilize populations, and actively encouraging the reduction of wealth inequality so that the richest 10% of people take no more than 40% or so of income.
The report is a vindication of the Club of Rome’s initial world view and a welcome alternative to mainstream economics’ focus on growth and equilibrium, says Steinberger.
“Most of The Limits to Growth’s original conclusions still hold true,” said Johan Rockström, a sustainability researcher at the Stockholm Resilience Centre and a co-author of the report, at its release. “This is scientifically satisfactory, but for societies it’s not.”
Club of Rome has a skeptical take on the future
Forty years ago, the Club of Rome released "The limits of growth." Now, it has released another look into the future. But how accurate are such predictions?
This points to an old dilemma: Is a prognosis a neutral scientific statement or is it a call to action? Ossip Flechtheim, one of the fathers of modern future studies already in the 1950s described his field as a synthesis of ideology and utopia not in line with a traditional concept of science.
"A synthesis of ideology and utopia not in line with a traditional concept of science"?? How better to describe Ikeda's "grand vision"??
What do they want to do? Depopulate the world!
What's SGI's vision of its utopia? When 1/3 of the population is converted. That number will do nicely as a target population for the whole world! The rest can just be erased!
Where does THIS fit into the Club of Rome 2030 conspiracy theory? For such an important question, we of course must consult the ConspiracyWiki!
In the August, 1980 edition of Fusion magazine, Howard Odum, a marine biologist at the University of Florida, who was a member of the Club of Rome, was quoted, saying: “It’s necessary that the U.S. cut its population by 2/3 within the next 50 years.” He did not mention how this should be accomplished. Source
"Within the next 50 years" - given a start date of 1980, what's the end date? 2030!
And if the US cuts its population by 2/3, what's left? 1/3!
Throughout the world, the Club of Rome has said that genocide should be used to eliminate people who they refer to as “useless eaters.“
Oh dear!
U.S. Association of the Club of Rome
In 1976, the U.S. Association of the Club of Rome (USACOR) was created, its purpose is to shut down the U.S. economy gradually. Henry Kissinger was then, and still is, an high ranked member in the service of the Royal Institute for International Affairs, a member of the Club of Rome and the Council on Foreign Relations.
Kissinger met with Ikeda, you know O_O. In 1975 - well after the Club of Rome had been created. The US Association of the Club of Rome did not emerge fully formed from Zeus' forehead as Athena, Goddess of War, supposedly did; by 1975, everybody involved was fully informed about what was going on.
Backtracking a bit:
The Club of Rome was created in 1968 by the Morgenthau Group, its original purpose was to create a New World Order by the year 2000.
Welp, missed that target!
The Club of Rome has an hidden agenda to divide the entire world into ten regions or kingdoms.
This gets interesting - bear with me. Here's the map. Notice something peculiar? JAPAN, which is all of about 10 square miles and 100 million people out of the world's >7 billion, gets to be its OWN "kingdom"! Not even the world power USA gets to be its OWN "kingdom"! So what's up with Japan's obviously "special" status?
Here's the list of the "Ten Kingdoms":
Imagine, the all-powerful USA having to share a "kingdom" with Canada and Mexico!. Notice how the "Kingdom" of "Western Europe" pretty much fits the outlines of the EU.
Can't talk about the European Union without talking about Count Richard Nikolaus von Coudenhove-Kalergi:
Ikeda not only linked to Club of Rome, but met up with and praised the starter of the EU, Count Richard Nikolaus von Coudenhove-Kalergi
We've been talking about Kalergi a bit - notice that he's got his OWN conspiracy theory, the Kalergi Plan aka "the Coudenhove-Kalergi Conspiracy" - far right, anti-semitic, white nationalist, etc. It's the kind of ethnically-superior, nationalistic rhetoric Ikeda would definitely get behind.
Richard von Coudenhove-Kalerghad his own idea for how the world's nations should be grouped - into five "superstates" (map from the 1920s). It pretty much keeps the British Empire intact; lumps Mexico, Central America, and South America in with the USA; sticks Japan in with China (serves them right); keeps the borders of the Soviet Union; and divvies up Africa among the continental Western European colonial powers (France, Belgium, Portugal, Amsterdam, whoever else), which are all lumped together. Can't we all just get along??
Coudenhove-Kalergi cuts quite an intriguing figure. Not only is he the one who proposed Beethoven's Ode to Joy as Europe's anthem, he also served as inspiration for Victor Laszlo, the fictional resistance hero in Casablanca. Source
Et tu, "Dr. Beethoven"??
Kalergi's mother came from a wealthy Japanese family, you know.
In 1922, Coudenhove-Kalergi co-founded the Pan-European Union, together with Austrian Archduke Otto von Habsburg. A year later, he published the manifesto Pan-Europa, and in 1924 he founded an eponymous journal, which ran until 1938. In 1926, the first Congress of the Pan-European Union elected Coudenhove-Kalergi as its president, which he would remain until his death.
Notice how, as soon as he seized the presidency of the Soka Gakkai, Ikeda changed all the rules to make himself dictator for life as well. Perhaps Toda wasn't Ikeda's most influential role model...
Ikeda intended to take over Japan, elevate Japan to World Power status alongside the USA and the Soviet Union, export his own minions throughout the world and use them to take over entire countries on a grassroots basis. BOY that didn't work O_O
"Some day 20 or 30 per cent of the people in the United States will become members of Nichirens Shoshu and disciples of President Ikeda." World Tribune
I'll take the world. Japan is too small. The world is waiting for me. Firmly protect the future of Japan for me! Ikeda
"...while I daydream plot scheme make plans to rule the werld! Muahahahahahahaha!!
And the best way to take over the world would be to take ovecolonialize the world's top superpower, the United States! I've described how (and why) this was such an Ikeda kind of goal here. He'd install his firstborn son Hiromasa as viceroy President of the United States (see "remaking the rules", above), which was the consolation prize for the firstborn being passed over for Daddy's inheritance rights - those were to go to the second son who resembled Daddy more strongly (again here). Hurts to be the ugly sister... Source
Just an aside - a company in Rome (since we're on the subject) claims to be on the forefront of human cloning...
So NOW - finally - on to the rest of the "1/3 of the world's population" bit.
Under the “business as usual scenario,” world society proceeds in a traditional manner without major deviation from the policies pursued during most of the 20th century. In this scenario, society proceeds as long as possible without major policy change. Population rises to more than seven billion by 2030.
And humanity gets an "exceeded expectations" review on its 2011 performance review!
But a few decades into the 21st century, growth of the economy stops and reverses abruptly.
Hmmm...how could anyone cause that to happen?? O_o
blah blah industrial decline, which forces declines in the service and agricultural sectors. About the year 2030, population peaks and begins to decrease as the death rate is driven upward by lack of food and health services.
Today we review a study from Australia that compares the business as usual scenario to 2100 presented by the Club of Rome in its Limits to Growth book to the observed trends in population, resource depletion and pollution for the last 40 years.Results indicate a very close match and leads to a fear that the collapse that was indicated in the BAU scenario around 2030 may still take place, given the reluctance of many of the world’s largest resource consumers and polluters (China, USA, Russia, Brazil, Canada, etc) to replace carbon fuel with alternative fuels. Added to that is the very real concern that the transition to renewable energy, along with decreased population rates recommended by the Club of Rome may not be possible before the impending collapse.
I'm afraid that there are too many very rich and powerful people who have way too much invested in fossil fuels and the status quo to embrace and promote a change to renewable energy.
“As pollution mounts and industrial input into agriculture falls, food production per capita falls. Health and education services are cut back, and that combines to bring about a rise in the death rate from about 2020. Global population begins to fall from about 2030, by about half a billion people per decade. Living conditions fall to levels similar to the early 1900s.” Source
The population of the US will likely peak at about 300 million by 2030, before declining (UN 1998 Revision).
And the US population earns an "exceeded expectations" review on its 2006%20%2D%2D%20The%20United%20States,the%20U.S.%20Census%20Bureau%20estimates.) performance review!
And no shortage of related crazy!
It appears that this plan has been green-lighted by the elite, as recent MIT research validates the conclusions drawn by Limits to Growth at this crucial time when we see the world economy imploding, and a jack-booted green police ready to hit the streets. According to MIT, we are headed toward a guaranteed planet-wide economic collapse and "precipitous population decline" if we do not heed the words of The Club of Rome. Source
The sky is always falling - somewhere...
This worldview was encapsulated in a follow-up book to Limits to Growth, called The First Global Revolution, which 21 years later laments and chastises the failure of wider humanity to aggressively implement the Club's previous suggestions, while openly touting manipulation as a way toward global unity.
There are many key passages in this book that give a clear indication of the mindset leading us through the present into the future, but a particularly striking section comes when they discuss the "limits of democracy:"
Democracy is not a panacea. It cannot organize everything, and is unaware of its own limits.
In its present form democracy is not well suited for the tasks ahead.
We overlook (psychologically speaking, we deny) our ignorance and say we lack the political will. The crucial need is to revitalize democracy and give it a breadth of perspective that will enable it to cope with the evolving global situation. In other words, is this new world we find ourselves in governable? The answer is probably not with the existing structures and attitudes. Source
Notice how neatly these points line up with Ikeda's disdain for democracy?
"When democracy is put into practice by the unthinking masses, liberty will be misinterpreted as license; rights will be claimed while duties remain unfulfilled; and the loss of order will allow evil to become rampant." - Complete Works of Daisaku Ikeda, page 176
Rather than having a great number of irresponsible men gather and noisily criticize, there are times when a single leader who thinks about the people from his heart, taking responsibility and acting decisively, saves the nation from danger and brings happiness to the people. Moreover, if the leader is trusted and supported by all the people, one may call this an excellent democracy. - Ikeda, quoted in The Sokagakkai and the Mass Model, p. 238.
Don't like democracy? Just make up some other governing structure and call that "democracy"! Or maybe "Buddhist democracy"!
But within Ikeda's worldview, the 1/3 of the world population that will consist of his followers will be the ones calling all the shots, running the whole show - the only ones who count:
Dear Leaders, We received a call from Sensei's secretariat informing that Sensei and Mrs. Ikeda are very concerned about the Chennai floods. Sensei has further asked that the following message be conveyed to the members in Chennai: "Please convey my heartfelt sympathy to the members in Chennai who are affected by the recent flood. Along with my wife, I am sending daimoku." With best regards, BSG Administration
Notice how Ikeda's sole concern is for his OWN cult faithful. Everybody else can go rot.
The purpose of shakubuku is actually to DOMINATE others - FOREVER! So they'll be your servants in future lifetimes! It's PURE SELFISHNESS!!
"ALL of us in the SGI are "old friends of life", "old friends across eternity", precious beyond measure and linked by bonds from the `beginningless' past. We have treasured this world of trust, friendship and fellowship. How sad and pitiful it is to betray and leave this beautiful realm! Those who abandon their faith travel on a course to tragic defeat in life. ... IN our organisation, there is no need to listen to the criticism of people who do not do gongyo and participate in activities for kosen-rufu. It is very foolish to be swayed at all by their words, which are nothing more then abuse, and do not deserve the slightest heed." - Daisaku Ikeda
"IGNORE everyone who isn't in OUR group."
SGI does NOT want dialogue
If you aren't going to talk with anyone outside of your group, what's the use of having them around at all?? It's YOUR fellow members who are going to be running everything, making all the important decisions, after all:
"If you stick with me, if you devote your life to following this teaching and helping to spread it, you'll experience things you never believed possible. Think of your friends, the ones who are giving you such a hard time about practicing. I bet you that ten years from now they'll be married, working at gas stations or in offices, raising a couple of kids, going to the movies on weekends. Stick with me, and in ten years you'll be the leader of five thousand people, perhaps ten thousand. In ten years you'll have abilities that will change the destiny of this planet. Ten years from now the organization will be unrecognizable, compared to what you see today. Right now we're in a phase of developing leaders for the future. Once that phase is completed, those leaders will be ready to take charge of important areas of society. We'll have senators, doctors, lawyers, and yes, writers, developed through the [SGI]. Of course I cant tell you exactly how long that will take; it won't be a sudden transformation, either. But within ten years, I think it's safe to say you won't see anything remotely resembling what you see today. ...you will be growing up into one of the leaders of this country." SGI leader from 1970
"When Kosenrufu is accomplished, (Kosenrufu is a Buddhist term. According to Ikeda's interpretation, it is a situation where most people have become faithful Soka Gakkai members), some of us will have gained influential positions in Japanese politics such as in the House of Councilors or the House of Representatives. They will usually have at least 100,000 yen to 200,000 yen in their wallet. They will wear nice clothes which will not be purchased in monthly installments but will be paid for in cash. Let's meet in the Diet Building or the Prince Hotel. We must place the Soka Gakkai members in all the key positions of Japanese government and society. Otherwise Kosenrufu will not be accomplished." - Ikeda, September 6th 1957, Seikyo Shimbun (SG's daily organ newspaper)
Clearly, "kosen-rufu" depends on seizing political power FIRST. THEN they can impose whatever they want on everybody else.
And notice how SGI intends to destroy all culture and replace it with SGI's OWN Ikeda-centered "culture".
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2020.09.29 18:20 hmwtgs [Profile review] Brazilian - 25M - 770 GMAT - MBB - 3.16 GPA

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2020.09.29 07:39 Jezza000 Why Pedophilia is Rampant in the Church

Dr. Taylor Marshall, a well-known theologian and expert in Thomism as well as a supporter of the Traditional Latin Mass, has written a book on the infiltration of the Catholic Church by anti-Catholic forces. The book is titled Infiltration: The Plot to Destroy the Church from Within.
Marshall starts his book with the apparition of Our Lady of La Salette in France and her warnings against Satan's reign in Rome and with the Alta Vendita instructions that were attributed to Freemasonry and published with the explicit support of several Popes in the 19th century. This document explains that, in order to undermine the Catholic Church, one has to infiltrate her, rather than fight against her from the outside. For this purpose, they would aim at influencing the head of the Catholic Church, the Pope.
“Now then, in order to secure to us a Pope according to our own heart, it is necessary to fashion for that Pope a generation worthy of the kingdom of which we dream. Leave on one side old age and middle life, go to the youth, and, if possible, even to children.” These Masons set out to introduce into Catholic thinking liberal ideas that finally would also reach to the top of the Church.
"The plan," writes Marshall, "doesn’t include pamphlets, guns, bloodshed, or even political elections. It requires a step-by-step infiltration, first of the youth, next of the clergy, and then, as time passes, of those youth and clergy who become cardinals and then the pope."
Bishop Athanasius Schneider, the auxiliary bishop of Astana, Kazakhstan, wrote a Foreword to Dr. Marshall's book. He praises the book, stating that “In Infiltration: The Plot to Destroy the Church from Within, Taylor Marshall touches on a topic that is deliberately ignored today. The issue of a possible infiltration of the Church by forces outside her does not fit into the optimistic picture that Pope John XXIII and particularly the Second Vatican Council unrealistically and uncritically drew of the modern world.” Schneider wonders how it comes that today, “not a few high- ranking members of the Catholic Church’s hierarchy have not only yielded to the relentless demands of the modern world; they are, with or without conviction, actively collaborating in the implementation of its principles in the daily life of the Church in all areas and on all levels.”
Here, Dr. Marshall's book might well help to shed some light on how the Church got to this point. “In order to understand this crisis,” Schneider adds, “we must examine the very roots of the crisis.” This crisis can be seen “as an infiltration of the Church by the unbelieving world, and especially by Freemasons – an infiltration that, by human standards, could effectively succeed only through a long, methodical process.” However, at the end of his introduction, Bishop Schneider reminds us that “even the most perfidious plot to destroy the Church from within will not succeed.”
John Vennari addressed the issue of Masonic infiltration on the pages of Catholic Faith Network back in February 1997 with his article, “The Permanent Instruction of the Alta Vendita,” which was later published as a booklet by TAN Books and Publishers (1999) and has recently been reprinted by The Fatima Centre (2017). In his booklet, subtitled, A Masonic Blueprint for the Subversion of the Catholic Church, Vennari summarizes the background and contents of a secret Masonic document as follows:
“Few Catholics know of The Permanent Instruction of the Alta Vendita, a secret document written in the early 19th century that mapped out a blueprint for the subversion of the Catholic Church. The Alta Vendita was the highest lodge of the Carbonari, an Italian secret society with links to Freemasonry and which, along with Freemasonry, was condemned by the Catholic Church. Fr. E. Cahill, S.J. in his book Freemasonry and the Anti-Christian Movement states that the Alta Vendita was ‘commonly supposed to have been at the time the governing centre of European Freemasonry.’ The Carbonari were most active in Italy and France. …
The strategy advanced in The Permanent Instruction of the Alta Vendita is astonishing in its audacity and cunning. From the start, the document tells of a process that will take decades to accomplish. Those who drew up the document knew that they would not see its fulfillment. They were inaugurating a work that would be carried on by succeeding generations of the initiated. The Permanent Instruction states, “In our ranks the solider dies and the struggle goes on.”
The Instruction called for the dissemination of liberal ideas and axioms throughout society and within the institutions of the Catholic Church so that laity, seminarians, clerics and prelates would, over the years, gradually be imbued with progressive principles.”
In the latest instalment of his ongoing “Moynihan Letters”, Dr. Robert Moynihan, founder and editor-in-chief of Inside the Vatican magazine, has divulged further details from his recent conversations with Archbishop Carlo Maria Viganò, including comments from the former apostolic nuncio on “the creation…of freemasonry” and related efforts “to infiltrate in some way into the Church,” the liberal hijacking of Vatican II during its opening session, and the state of the Jesuit Order in the United States – a topic which Viganò now claims Pope Francis broached during their infamous June 23, 2013 private meeting (detailed in Viganò initial testimony).
In a letter dated July 29, 2019, Dr. Moynihan revealed that he had met with Archbishop Viganò “in a quiet place” that day, followed by a subsequent letter (July 30) in which Moynihan quoted Viganò’s comments on “the history of the Jesuits” and “the triumph of a 60-year-old plan…to bring a new sort of thinking into the heart of the Church”. In the introduction of his new letter (Sept. 9, 2019), published two weeks after the one-year anniversary of Archbishop Viganò’s first testimony (released Aug. 25, 2018), Dr. Moynihan explains:
“Now, with the passage of a year, Archbishop Viganò has a still deeper concern: that the clerical sexual abuse crisis is only one aspect of a deeper and wider crisis of the Christian faith in our age. …
This deeper and wider crisis, Viganò believes, involves, theologically, an illegitimate rejection (that is, not a legitimate development) of traditional Catholic doctrine. The aim: to construct a more modern ‘new church,’ marked by a faith and practice in many areas of Catholic moral and sacramental life different from the Church of the past.
Viganò sees this rejection of traditional teaching as a matter of grave concern. In keeping with his role as a Catholic bishop, he told me, he feels it his duty to do all he can to defend orthodox doctrine.
‘I cannot be silent if the faith is at stake,’ Viganò told me. ‘If others will join me, all the better. But even if I am alone, I must speak out.’”
Moynihan goes on to provide excerpts from his recent discussions with Viganò. One crucial exchange reads as follows:
“Archbishop Carlo Maria Viganò: In one of your recent letters concerning me, you mentioned that the present pontificate, with a member of the Jesuit order as Pope, represents the achievement of a plan dating back 60 years.
Some of your readers wrote to comment that there were many more than 60 years leading up to this, going back to the early decades of the 20th century, to Jesuit thinkers like Pierre Teilhard de Chardin and Karl Rahner, and also even earlier, to the time of the French Revolution in 1789.
So not just 60 years, but more than 200 years.
[Moynihan] How would you respond to this objection?
Viganò: I agree fully. Certainly, it is a project, if you will, that goes back centuries, in particular, to the creation in the middle of the 1700s of freemasonry. But of course, this project was very deceptive, and oriented, or even included in some way, the forces of some members of the Church. So, this process was able to infiltrate in some way into the Church. This is described in the book Infiltration by Dr. Taylor Marshall, so you may find some indication of this process there.”
In 1886, Pope Leo XIII published Quod Multum, decrying the “bold obstinacy of secret societies” and their domination by way of “conspiracies” and “corruptions.” Leo wrote four encyclicals against Freemasonry and doggedly fought Liberalism, which promoted rationalism and a Protestant critical approach to Scripture. As Marshall explains, Pope St. Pius X later “identified this internal Freemasonic attack as ‘Modernism,’ the naturalism of Freemasonry with a Catholic veneer that justifies itself by appealing to the ‘evolution of dogma.’” Here Marshall lays out an incisive tripartite analysis of Modernism’s main pillars: the “demythologizing” of Scripture, the embrace of secularism and universal fraternity, and the rejection of Catholic morals, doctrine, and aesthetics.
Given Marshall’s willingness to confront such thorny material, his book is not without controversy. One reviewer caricatures Marshall’s book as a “conspiracy theory” similar to that of a “mad relative”—both seriously misrepresenting the level of Marshall’s scholarship and ignoring the numerous preconciliar popes who have spoken with utter seriousness against the same subversive forces discussed by Marshall. When the reviewer lists specific criticisms, it becomes apparent that his real objection is to Marshall’s failure to endorse a rosy picture of la nouvelle théologie, the Novus Ordo Missae, and Vatican II.
Recalling Pope Francis’s subversive statements on conscience and an allegedly God-willed “diversity of religions,” Marshall says the revolutionaries finally have a pope whose philosophy “is essentially that of a nineteenth-century member of the Freemasonic Carbonari.” Under Infiltration’s capacious gaze, the Francis pontificate thus emerges as the unsurprising outcome of a long history of corrupting ideas. Surveying that historical genealogy equips us to better recognize the errors flourishing under this pontificate—and to vigorously resist them.
There is a reason there have always been tensions between the Vatican and the secret societies, which have always tried to destroy faith and more precisely Catholicism. Theologically, they believe in a deist God, so they do not believe in Catholicism. Nowadays there are Catholics that join freemasonry without even knowing that one thing is incompatible with the other. Their Illuminist ideologies opened the door to modern ideologies like scepticism, atheism, and all moral absurdities of today. They speak of God as the “grand architect of the universe”. God to them is like a billiard player, who hit the cue ball at the start of all things, and then stepped back, knowing how everything would play out. He is distant and impersonal. This is wrong. God is very much active in our day to day lives, constantly seeking a loving relationship with each one of us.
Then there is the problem of indifferentism. This is one of the core pillars of their belief system: that anyone, so long as they believe in God, are equal in the lodge, be they Christian, Jew, Hindu, or Muslim, etc. This implies that the details of one’s religion are unimportant so long as they’re nice to one another. This is relativism, and it is heresy. The details of our beliefs are unbelievably important. Souls are won and lost depending in their adherence to the doctrines that have been revealed to us by the Holy Spirit.
Freemasons teach that through study and ritual, one can acquire hidden knowledge which will make you a better person, that you can lift yourself out of the human condition solely through your own efforts. But this is pride and arrogance. We cannot save ourselves without help from God. We are fallen beings, in a fallen world, and only the light of God can save us from our present state.
submitted by Jezza000 to conspiracy [link] [comments]


2020.09.29 07:39 Jezza000 Why Pedophilia is Rampant in the Church

Dr. Taylor Marshall, a well-known theologian and expert in Thomism as well as a supporter of the Traditional Latin Mass, has written a book on the infiltration of the Catholic Church by anti-Catholic forces. The book is titled Infiltration: The Plot to Destroy the Church from Within.
Marshall starts his book with the apparition of Our Lady of La Salette in France and her warnings against Satan's reign in Rome and with the Alta Vendita instructions that were attributed to Freemasonry and published with the explicit support of several Popes in the 19th century. This document explains that, in order to undermine the Catholic Church, one has to infiltrate her, rather than fight against her from the outside. For this purpose, they would aim at influencing the head of the Catholic Church, the Pope.
“Now then, in order to secure to us a Pope according to our own heart, it is necessary to fashion for that Pope a generation worthy of the kingdom of which we dream. Leave on one side old age and middle life, go to the youth, and, if possible, even to children.” These Masons set out to introduce into Catholic thinking liberal ideas that finally would also reach to the top of the Church.
"The plan," writes Marshall, "doesn’t include pamphlets, guns, bloodshed, or even political elections. It requires a step-by-step infiltration, first of the youth, next of the clergy, and then, as time passes, of those youth and clergy who become cardinals and then the pope."
Bishop Athanasius Schneider, the auxiliary bishop of Astana, Kazakhstan, wrote a Foreword to Dr. Marshall's book. He praises the book, stating that “In Infiltration: The Plot to Destroy the Church from Within, Taylor Marshall touches on a topic that is deliberately ignored today. The issue of a possible infiltration of the Church by forces outside her does not fit into the optimistic picture that Pope John XXIII and particularly the Second Vatican Council unrealistically and uncritically drew of the modern world.” Schneider wonders how it comes that today, “not a few high- ranking members of the Catholic Church’s hierarchy have not only yielded to the relentless demands of the modern world; they are, with or without conviction, actively collaborating in the implementation of its principles in the daily life of the Church in all areas and on all levels.”
Here, Dr. Marshall's book might well help to shed some light on how the Church got to this point. “In order to understand this crisis,” Schneider adds, “we must examine the very roots of the crisis.” This crisis can be seen “as an infiltration of the Church by the unbelieving world, and especially by Freemasons – an infiltration that, by human standards, could effectively succeed only through a long, methodical process.” However, at the end of his introduction, Bishop Schneider reminds us that “even the most perfidious plot to destroy the Church from within will not succeed.”
John Vennari addressed the issue of Masonic infiltration on the pages of Catholic Faith Network back in February 1997 with his article, “The Permanent Instruction of the Alta Vendita,” which was later published as a booklet by TAN Books and Publishers (1999) and has recently been reprinted by The Fatima Centre (2017). In his booklet, subtitled, A Masonic Blueprint for the Subversion of the Catholic Church, Vennari summarizes the background and contents of a secret Masonic document as follows:
“Few Catholics know of The Permanent Instruction of the Alta Vendita, a secret document written in the early 19th century that mapped out a blueprint for the subversion of the Catholic Church. The Alta Vendita was the highest lodge of the Carbonari, an Italian secret society with links to Freemasonry and which, along with Freemasonry, was condemned by the Catholic Church. Fr. E. Cahill, S.J. in his book Freemasonry and the Anti-Christian Movement states that the Alta Vendita was ‘commonly supposed to have been at the time the governing centre of European Freemasonry.’ The Carbonari were most active in Italy and France. …
The strategy advanced in The Permanent Instruction of the Alta Vendita is astonishing in its audacity and cunning. From the start, the document tells of a process that will take decades to accomplish. Those who drew up the document knew that they would not see its fulfillment. They were inaugurating a work that would be carried on by succeeding generations of the initiated. The Permanent Instruction states, “In our ranks the solider dies and the struggle goes on.”
The Instruction called for the dissemination of liberal ideas and axioms throughout society and within the institutions of the Catholic Church so that laity, seminarians, clerics and prelates would, over the years, gradually be imbued with progressive principles.”
In the latest instalment of his ongoing “Moynihan Letters”, Dr. Robert Moynihan, founder and editor-in-chief of Inside the Vatican magazine, has divulged further details from his recent conversations with Archbishop Carlo Maria Viganò, including comments from the former apostolic nuncio on “the creation…of freemasonry” and related efforts “to infiltrate in some way into the Church,” the liberal hijacking of Vatican II during its opening session, and the state of the Jesuit Order in the United States – a topic which Viganò now claims Pope Francis broached during their infamous June 23, 2013 private meeting (detailed in Viganò initial testimony).
In a letter dated July 29, 2019, Dr. Moynihan revealed that he had met with Archbishop Viganò “in a quiet place” that day, followed by a subsequent letter (July 30) in which Moynihan quoted Viganò’s comments on “the history of the Jesuits” and “the triumph of a 60-year-old plan…to bring a new sort of thinking into the heart of the Church”. In the introduction of his new letter (Sept. 9, 2019), published two weeks after the one-year anniversary of Archbishop Viganò’s first testimony (released Aug. 25, 2018), Dr. Moynihan explains:
“Now, with the passage of a year, Archbishop Viganò has a still deeper concern: that the clerical sexual abuse crisis is only one aspect of a deeper and wider crisis of the Christian faith in our age. …
This deeper and wider crisis, Viganò believes, involves, theologically, an illegitimate rejection (that is, not a legitimate development) of traditional Catholic doctrine. The aim: to construct a more modern ‘new church,’ marked by a faith and practice in many areas of Catholic moral and sacramental life different from the Church of the past.
Viganò sees this rejection of traditional teaching as a matter of grave concern. In keeping with his role as a Catholic bishop, he told me, he feels it his duty to do all he can to defend orthodox doctrine.
‘I cannot be silent if the faith is at stake,’ Viganò told me. ‘If others will join me, all the better. But even if I am alone, I must speak out.’”
Moynihan goes on to provide excerpts from his recent discussions with Viganò. One crucial exchange reads as follows:
“Archbishop Carlo Maria Viganò: In one of your recent letters concerning me, you mentioned that the present pontificate, with a member of the Jesuit order as Pope, represents the achievement of a plan dating back 60 years.
Some of your readers wrote to comment that there were many more than 60 years leading up to this, going back to the early decades of the 20th century, to Jesuit thinkers like Pierre Teilhard de Chardin and Karl Rahner, and also even earlier, to the time of the French Revolution in 1789.
So not just 60 years, but more than 200 years.
[Moynihan] How would you respond to this objection?
Viganò: I agree fully. Certainly, it is a project, if you will, that goes back centuries, in particular, to the creation in the middle of the 1700s of freemasonry. But of course, this project was very deceptive, and oriented, or even included in some way, the forces of some members of the Church. So, this process was able to infiltrate in some way into the Church. This is described in the book Infiltration by Dr. Taylor Marshall, so you may find some indication of this process there.”
In 1886, Pope Leo XIII published Quod Multum, decrying the “bold obstinacy of secret societies” and their domination by way of “conspiracies” and “corruptions.” Leo wrote four encyclicals against Freemasonry and doggedly fought Liberalism, which promoted rationalism and a Protestant critical approach to Scripture. As Marshall explains, Pope St. Pius X later “identified this internal Freemasonic attack as ‘Modernism,’ the naturalism of Freemasonry with a Catholic veneer that justifies itself by appealing to the ‘evolution of dogma.’” Here Marshall lays out an incisive tripartite analysis of Modernism’s main pillars: the “demythologizing” of Scripture, the embrace of secularism and universal fraternity, and the rejection of Catholic morals, doctrine, and aesthetics.
Given Marshall’s willingness to confront such thorny material, his book is not without controversy. One reviewer caricatures Marshall’s book as a “conspiracy theory” similar to that of a “mad relative”—both seriously misrepresenting the level of Marshall’s scholarship and ignoring the numerous preconciliar popes who have spoken with utter seriousness against the same subversive forces discussed by Marshall. When the reviewer lists specific criticisms, it becomes apparent that his real objection is to Marshall’s failure to endorse a rosy picture of la nouvelle théologie, the Novus Ordo Missae, and Vatican II.
Recalling Pope Francis’s subversive statements on conscience and an allegedly God-willed “diversity of religions,” Marshall says the revolutionaries finally have a pope whose philosophy “is essentially that of a nineteenth-century member of the Freemasonic Carbonari.” Under Infiltration’s capacious gaze, the Francis pontificate thus emerges as the unsurprising outcome of a long history of corrupting ideas. Surveying that historical genealogy equips us to better recognize the errors flourishing under this pontificate—and to vigorously resist them.
There is a reason there have always been tensions between the Vatican and the secret societies, which have always tried to destroy faith and more precisely Catholicism. Theologically, they believe in a deist God, so they do not believe in Catholicism. Nowadays there are Catholics that join freemasonry without even knowing that one thing is incompatible with the other. Their Illuminist ideologies opened the door to modern ideologies like scepticism, atheism, and all moral absurdities of today. They speak of God as the “grand architect of the universe”. God to them is like a billiard player, who hit the cue ball at the start of all things, and then stepped back, knowing how everything would play out. He is distant and impersonal. This is wrong. God is very much active in our day to day lives, constantly seeking a loving relationship with each one of us.
Then there is the problem of indifferentism. This is one of the core pillars of their belief system: that anyone, so long as they believe in God, are equal in the lodge, be they Christian, Jew, Hindu, or Muslim, etc. This implies that the details of one’s religion are unimportant so long as they’re nice to one another. This is relativism, and it is heresy. The details of our beliefs are unbelievably important. Souls are won and lost depending in their adherence to the doctrines that have been revealed to us by the Holy Spirit.
Freemasons teach that through study and ritual, one can acquire hidden knowledge which will make you a better person, that you can lift yourself out of the human condition solely through your own efforts. But this is pride and arrogance. We cannot save ourselves without help from God. We are fallen beings, in a fallen world, and only the light of God can save us from our present state.
submitted by Jezza000 to conspiracytheories [link] [comments]


2020.09.28 00:54 GreatAwakening888 THE SPELL IS BROKEN: Trump's Glorious Rebuilding Of Earthly And Divine Human Infrastructure [part 2]

Cult 93's ruthless attack on humanity and the Twin Towers of our DNA is behind us, and now it is time to move forward, to rebuild, to restore, to reconnect, and to go home, just as Maestro Trump and Muse Melania show us HERE. But to move forward we must understand the past, as well as 'why' Cult 93's attack is 'behind' us, and how Maestro Trump was able to 'break' the most vicious spell/hex ever placed upon humanity.
III. BREAKING THE SPELLS - TRANSFORMATION OF CULT 93'S SPELL
Following the 9:47p (9 [4+7] => 9/11) September 10th overture, Maestro Trump's epic series of 9/11 messages begins in earnest at 6:13a on 9/11/20 (screenshot HERE). This is first puzzle piece on 9/11/20, but the third piece of the total puzzle. It comes 506 minutes after the previous 9:47p 'overture' post on September 10th, which connected to Trump's Twitter banner connecting this 9/11 BREAKING THE SPELL puzzle to the ancient Latin epic, The Aeneid (reminder graphic HERE). 506 => 56 = LATIN = ATTACK = HEALING = NASDAQ. This helps us establish the over-arching trajectory of the puzzle, from the ancient Latin National Epic about 'fallen angel' bloodlines taking over the world, to [their] modern-day attack on humanity, and the ultimate healing that has occurred from breaking the spell. The Nasdaq connection introduces the theme of money, which is not directly related to this puzzle piece, but will be directly related to the following.
As we progress through Maestro Trump's National Epic, you will find that he utilizes both foreshadowing to prepare us for later puzzle pieces, as well as recursive repetition and variation of themes to help internally confirm the decode as we move through it.
To find our solution path, let's start with the timestamp. Do you see the 61 vs 13 dynamic (Qanon vs 13 Bloodline Families)? Do you see 61 x 3? 61 x 3 = 183. Capital letters for this 6:13a Tweet = CJPMC BACK TO OFFICE SW = 183. Coincidence? 183 = BREAKING THE SPELLS = TRANSFORMATION. What are the odds of the timestamp and capital letters aligning? What about how 183 => 93?
Returning to the capital letters of the Tweet, CJPMC BACK TO OFFICE SW = 183 = BREAKING THE SPELLS = TRANSFORMATION = REVEAL THE TRUTH = KARMA PUNISHMENT = IT'LL BE OVER SOON.
To fully solve, next we need to 'break' the capital letters into sections, just as we learned with the 'caesura' point in the poetic meter with Maestro Trump's Aeneid hint from Part 1.
CJPMC = 45 = KITE (referencing 9/11 spell); 45 = 45th POTUS (Trump) = JFK II = BOTH; BACK TO OFFICE = 96 = LAW & ORDER = FREEDOM DAY = RETURN (return the male/female bond to 69 from 96); SW = 42 = TV (referencing Trump's 9/11 spell reversal) = NEW = DAWN; CJPMC SW = 87 = PERSON (again referencing Trump's 9/11 spell reversal) = TRUTH = JUSTICE = NOAH'S ARK.
DECODED MESSAGE: The 19th Anniversary of 9/11 is about the COMMEMORATION of Trump officially BREAKING THE SPELLS of Cult 93, particularly the 9/11 hex on humanity. Both President Trump and JFK II created a plan to heal humanity and planet Earth from Cult 93's attack and hex. Through Trump's metaphysical spell reversal represented via PERSON WOMAN MAN CAMERA TV, Trump began the TRANSFORMATION process, which is about fixing the harm Cult 93 did to human DNA, returning the male/female structure to the divine 69 model that Cult 93 inverted ('broke') to 96, and returning humanity's God-given sovereignty and freedom by revealing the truth, restoring justice, and enforcing law & order via punishing those responsible for this atrocity. This transformation process is what The Wall is really about, a modern-day version of Noah's Ark to protect humanity and enable healing during The Storm.
Do you see how this Tweet is a summarization and confirmation of everything in my END GAME – WINNER TAKES ALL – Part 1: Trump Reverses The 9-11 Spell? This dispelling and transformation process is what The Wall is really about, a modern-day version of Noah's Ark to protect humanity and enable healing of our DNA during The Storm, restoring our structure back to how it was in THE BEGINNING (Our Journey Back To Eden).
(summarizing graphic with decoded message HERE)

IV. STARVE THE VAMPIRES & RESTORE THE MALE/FEMALE EMBRACE
As we continue this journey through the 9/11 puzzle, so that you can solve along with me and to conserve space, I will place the decoded messages for each piece in the summarizing graphic at the end of each section.
Moving along, in the next Tweet at 6:45a (screenshot HERE), Maestro Trump illustrates how his transformation of [their] evil into a divine positive occurred. This puzzle piece was posted 32 minutes after the previous, 32 => 322; or 1,920 seconds => 192 = YALE SKULL AND BONES = TOWERING INFERNO = 192 => 93. Cult 93's primary attack on humanity was focused on the two human genders that God created, which [they] wanted to 'blow up' into many genders. Cult 93 represented this via inverting the '69' representation of male and female to '96' ('breaking' the male/female embrace). The timestamp of 6:45a => 6 [4+5] => 69, gives us context that Maestro Trump's primary objective was to restore the male/female embrace by reversing Cult 93's '96' break, back to the divine '69'.
Capital letters of the Tweet: NFS. Before we get to the numerical value, NFS rearranged is NSF, which is a banking designation (connecting back to JPMorgan Chase financial theme foreshadowed in the previous puzzle piece). NSF means 'non-sufficient funds' to cover the amount of a check. [They] are the ones now experiencing NSF. How do we know? NFS = 39 = (Cult 93 'reversed') = 39 = GREED = FLAT = CHAIR. The FED is now dead, and remember P, 'The Master, The Chair? P = 16 = BAAL. He's 'broke'.
Moving to the phrase in the graphic of the Tweet in all caps, WE WILL NEVER FORGET = 219 => 39. Another 39! 219 in the negative aspect equals ONE WORLD TRADE CENTER = SYSTEM OF CONTROL = IN LEAGUE WITH THE DEVIL. 219 in the positive equals CAN YOU GUESS WHO I AM = SECOND COMING OF CHRIST = THE BIBLICAL GREAT AWAKENING. The date is also in caps: SEPTEMBER 11, 2020 = 103 (JFK would have been 103 years old if still alive today). If you add 1+1+2+0+2+0 = 6 to (SEPTEMBER) 103, you get 109. Do you see the movement from 103 to 109 => 39! To find the message, we connect negative 103s and compare them to positive 109s.
Negative 103s = CAPITALISM = VAMPIRES = BANKRUPT = 'THE ELITES' = TIME'S UP = 13 => 13 (Bloodlines).
Positive 109s = SEVENTEEN (Q) = NESARA GESARA = GREEN CASTLE = THE RED PILL = HELLO GEORGE = LOCK HER UP = LAUNCH AMERICA (honoring JFK's birthday in May 2020) = 109 => 1 minute and 09 seconds => 69 seconds => the male/female embrace restored.
(summarizing graphic with related Q posts and decoded message HERE).

V. INFRASTRUCTURE - REBUILDING THE DIVINE MALE & DIVINE FEMALE
Isn't it compelling to see and hear Maestro Trump 'spell' everything out for us? He's just getting warmed up, so please fasten your seatbelts, anons, and take 'breaks' as needed to catch your breath as we climb this most breathtaking mountain.
At 7:42a (screenshot HERE), we are introduced to what comes after Cult 93, and thus how [they] were defeated and how humanity will ultimately TRiUMPh.
The first thing to observe is this puzzle piece comes 57 minutes after the previous. 57 = HUMAN = BIRTH = TESLA = SHIELD = ALLIANCE = I AM FREE, but it also equals GEORGE. Is George referring to Nikola Tesla? HELLO GEORGE! Could is also refer to JFK JR? Who's MAGAzine was called George?
The timestamp is the first clue: 742 => [7+2]4 => 94. While part of the message relates to the '94 Theory' in my recent decodes that 94 = JOHN JOHN, and that JFK Jr is in fact alive after all, Maestro Trump is introducing us to the 'higher octave' of 94. 94 = GUARDIANS = DIVINE MALE = SEED OF DAVID = LION (of) JUDAH.
Revelations 5:5: Then one of the elders said to me, “Do not weep! See, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has triumphed. He is able to open the scroll and its seven seals.”
Before moving to the capital letters, I want to introduce the '-/+' short-hand that I will be employing as we proceed. It will be placed in the 'break' between negative and positive aspects of a numerical value.
ING ASO PD = 85 = THE DEVIL = OFFENDED GOD = FEARLESS = CRUCIFY = BURNING = THE EARTH = HAIL SATAN = TWINS = THE DOOR = IT BEGINS -/+ = AWAKENING = ORIGINAL = NEED DATE CODE
The 'date code from Trump's Tweet: 2+0+0+1+3+0+0+0+1+1 = 8 . 8 + ING ASO PD (85) = 93.
Patriot Day = 129 => 39 (reversing of Cult 93); 129 = DEMONIC FORCES = SATAN LUCIFER = DESTROYER -/+ = BUILD THE WALL = CAST SOULS = PROJECT ODIN = ETERNAL LOVE = LOVE AND LIGHT = FREQUENCY = VIBRATIONS = RAISE IN LOVE = ROOT OF DAVID = HOUSE OF DAVID = THE RETURN (to Eden, to our original God-given DNA)
The context of the Tweet content is regarding a nation under God (divine rule), making an 'unbreakable' promise never to forget. This pertains directly to the Patriots of The Q Team, who, 19 years ago, by many accounts, were the individuals attacked at the Pentagon, days before they had enough to bring down Cult 93. The Patriots of The Q Team made a promise to God and humanity that they would atone for this atrocity, that they would awaken the masses from the spell, and systematically reverse what Cult 93 did. Do you see Maestro Trump and Muse Melania's 'right' hand over their heart => earth (screenshot HERE). This symbolically represents how the Patriots fulfilled this unbreakable promise.
(summarizing graphic with related Q posts and decoded message HERE).
Now do you see what INFRASTRUCTURE is really about in the 'higher octave'? With this understanding, do you understand why the [D]emon [C]ommunity recoils at the prospect of 'doing infrastructure'?
THE SPELL IS BROKEN: Flight 93, The Truth About How Q Patriots Saved America From Cult 93's Kill Shot [part 3]
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2020.09.27 16:08 travel_ali A few more thoughts and experiences after 5 years.

It is now just over 5 years since I moved from the UK to Switzerland. There have been many surprises along the way. I moved here with a 1 year temporary contract and had vague plans to work, see the country at weekends, and then move on elsewhere after. During this time I have moved house, moved job, been unemployed for a few months, explored the country, met and worked with Swiss people from various parts of the country and Expats of various backgrounds, oh and gotten married to a Swiss person.
This is not an all out guide (there are plenty of those), more my reflections and a few lessons learned.
I have posted before after 1 year and after 2.5 years.I have also written pretty extensively about travelling here and Switzerland in general – an overview post of all that is here.
---Resources---
I came in knowing practically nothing other than a frantic check of anything I needed to do to avoid being kicked out.
  • The book “Living and Working in Switzerland : A Survival Handbook” by David Hampshire, is very useful.
  • Various dedicated websites with more serious official information sem.admin.ch, and Ch.ch, and to an extent websites like SwissInfo.
  • Various websites with more unofficial but helpful information. The EnglishForum.ch is a treasure trove of information and experiences. But there are endless other places like Newlyswissed, and Swiss and Chips that vary between useless fluff and very useful info.
---Why and how---
  • I did a PhD in the UK and as I was finishing it up and looking for a PostDoc I basically just got a job here in a place I had never heard of through chance by a chain of contacts. I had been looking to move abroad but for some reason Switzerland had never occurred to me.
  • Initially I arrived on a 1 year contract with Firm A, with the strong likelihood of it being extended to 2 years. It ended up as 2.5, by which time I was moved in with my girlfriend and I was set on sticking around. Job hunting was slower than I expected, so before starting on a new position at Firm B I applied to unemployment benefits for what turned out to be just a month (not sure I need to be so secretive really, but why not).
  • I basically just moved with my laptop and as much clothing as I could fit in a 60L backpack. I didn’t botheforgot to declare anything (not that I brought anything of any value with me).
  • I got lucky with housing, but that could have been the biggest problem. Initially I had been expecting to stay at a flat rented by the company for a month or two until I found my own place. This got cancelled at the last minute and I found myself trying to find a flat to move straight into. In the end I staying at a hostel for a week and moved into a shared flat found through WGzimmer.ch before the end of the week. There are not many shared flats compared to the UK, and applying for a flat often feels more like applying for a job or dating with the process dragging on for much longer than the “You like it? OK deposit and sign here” method in the UK. Starting early and getting help from your company is certainly advisable there.
---Bureaucracy, Rules, and Paperwork---
I had feared this would be a slow and complicated torture, but to date this has all been very quick, easy, and painless. In large part probably because I had a job already, I was an EU citizen, and I had an address lined up quickly.
  • Dealing with the local authorities has always been fast, efficient, and friendly. Other than collecting my residency permit every so often when a contract has been renewed I have only had to deal with them very periodically, but any phone call or visit has taken no more than 20 minutes with very little waiting. This might just be because I live in a small city – maybe in Zürich or a tiny village it is different.
  • I had a slight delay in getting my permit and bank account activated as I waited for the landlord to approve my place as subtenant and give me a contract for proof of address (despite the fact I was already living there). This didn’t create any problems, my firm just gave me an envelope stuffed with bank notes for my first payment.
  • Setting up a PostFinance bank account was easy (even with a language barrier then). 20 minutes of filling in a form and showing a few documents.
  • Despite the reputation for rules and order I have not noticed much difference to life in other industrialised western countries. If anything it is more relaxed in many ways. There are some stricter rules like having to use pre-taxed bin bags or minimal noise on a Sunday, but these are mostly reasonable enough. It is nice not hear endless lawn mower engines on a Sunday afternoon. The only rule that seems pointless is having to tie up paper in a perfect bundle for recycling. Maybe if I ever try and build a house or plan an extension it will get more complex and painful.
  • You are supposed to swap your driving licence within a year, or unable to drive in Switzerland and be made to repeat the test again if you want a Swiss licence. I didn’t apply at first given that I never intended to drive here or stay much longer at first. When I did apply after 2.5 years through the standard process (just to see what would happen) I actually did just get given a Swiss licence without being asked to go through the whole testing process.
  • The mandatory health insurance is easy enough to set up with all the big companies offering English support.
  • Tax was originally paid at the source (as is standard for foreign workers up until you are on a C permit), but now being married and treated as a combined legal entity I am paying tax through the standard method.
  • Going through the marriage process was also easy. Being an EU citizen marrying a Swiss citizen helped. There was some confusion when they asked for a statement from the UK govt saying I was not married as this apparently has not been given out in years, but a quick chat resolved that problem.
---Money---
  • I make roughly 100k CHF per year. This is decent by Swiss standards, given my education and experience I could get more in another firm/position here, but I am happy with my workplace and would be very reluctant to give up my scenic riverside commute by bike.
  • Saving money has not been a problem. Even bearing most of the household costs with a studying partner. Not having a car, pets, kids, or eating/drinking out much helps there. My main non-essential expense is the general train pass and food/accommodation costs for weekends around the country.
  • The high prices take some getting used to at first, but when you work here it isn’t so bad (once you learn to stop converting them back to your native currency). The positive side is that when you leave Switzerland everything is suddenly so cheap.
--- The Swiss ---
I like the Swiss.
  • I have never had any problems with the Swiss; despite the number of comments I see online bemoaning the fact that whilst Switzerland is a beautiful country it would be terrible to live in as the locals hate foreigners. I have never had a moment of hostility and experience less general rudeness than I would expect back home in the UK (even with language/culture barriers to push the patience).
  • I am however white, from a north-western European country which doesn’t have many expats in Switzerland, and educated (outside the expense of the Swiss people). So I am probably not going to be the target of much racism or xenophobia.
  • Whilst not the warmest people in the world there is a certain friendliness, especially in informal situations. Put a Swiss person in the countryside and they will be friends with anyone. In rural restaurants especially sharing a table with strangers and saying hello/goodbye to everyone there as a whole is standard practice.
  • I am also more on the introverted side so a quieter and orderly country is probably more my sort of place than some of the commenters.
---Making friends---
My friendship group is a mix of Swiss and other expats. It is easier to integrate with other expats, though I find that the younger generations of Swiss are much more open than the old jokes of knowing a Swiss person from birth or for 40 years to be their friend would suggest.
---Language---
I have written fairly extensively about Swiss-German before
  • I had some very basic German in the distance past from school. Then started learning before I arrived. Now I am B2/C1 with German and working towards A2 with French.
  • I didn’t need to get a language certificate (still don’t really). Partly I put it off thinking I would wait until the next level, and partly that the grammar and me are not friends. I have finally taken the TELC B2 exam for German and am waiting on the results for that.
  • English is very widely spoken. Frustratingly so at times, even in seemingly obscure and remote little places I have people speak back to me in English when they hear my accent.
  • If you live in a city and work in an international workplace then knowing the local language isn’t really needed. Though I certainly don’t recommend doing that.
  • It is natural to think that everyone here speaks German/French/Italian fluently (and maybe some Romansch), but that is far from the case. Some do have all 3, many are fluent in 2, but very often English is the preferred common language outside of their mother tongue. Likewise the way the language regions tend to have very hard borders without much overlap was a bit surprising at first.
  • Being in a country with multiple languages will never get boring. Especially somewhere that actually is bilingual like Biel where it isn’t uncommon for a shopkeeper to forget what language they were speaking to you in and switch from German to French.
---Surprises---
  • Those bastard fancy landscape photos didn’t show the fog did they? From September to February temperature inversion means that much of the low lying middle of Switzerland can be sat in/under a thick fog. How bad this is varies by location; some places barely get any whilst others turn into Silent Hill. Already shorter winter days can be shortened by hours as the light is swallowed. The plus side is that above the fog you get super clear views, but it gets depressing after weeks of daily life sat in it.
  • The country is much livelier than I expected. The stereotype of a grey serious place might have been true decades ago but certainly isn’t now. Especially in summer there are constant music festivals, lively bars, and flotillas of people floating down the rivers in inflatable flamingos. Granted it still isn’t Latin America.
  • I was not prepared for Swiss-German, my then basic German knowledge didn’t stand a chance. I have been working on this and managed to put together as comprehensive collection of resources as you are likely to find anywhere for Swiss-German.
  • The Swiss see summer as BBQ season in a way that makes the Aussies look like amateurs. I have seen people lighting up fires on tiny balconies in Zürich to BBQ on.
  • How much there is outside of the Alps. Maybe it was my ignorance before, but I was surprised by how many beautiful spots there are even in the topographically boring parts of the country.
---Swiss Achievements---
  • Aromat on the table.
  • Making a fire in the countryside to roast a cervelat.
  • Phoned the police to lodge a nose complaint (the Bünzli award). It was 2am on a weekday and the 5th night in a row. I haven’t started to phone the police because my neighbour sneezed too loudly on a Sunday (yet).
  • Raclette grill and Fondue caquelon in the kitchen.
  • Swimming and floating in lakes and rivers.
  • Visiting more places in Switzerland than most Swiss people I know. A new country is always more interesting than your own backyard in fairness.
---Why I am still here---
I certainly never thought I would be here 5 years later, but I am very happy to still be around.
  • It is a beautiful and safe county with nice people, high quality services and infrastructure. Having understood the culture and learnt the language is an incentive too.
  • I keep finding work. The Swiss level income is a nice bonus, but it really isn’t the thing that is driving me to stay here.
  • The thing I would find hardest to give up is the freedom of the landscape. The extent of paths and smaller roads around the country that are open to anyone. Making it so easy and carefree to get out and anywhere, especially by foot or bike.
  • It is much more varied than you would expect. Both in landscape and culture there is plenty of different things to see and take in so there is always something to do.
  • I also dislike driving, so the extensive public transport system is fantastic.
---What I dislike---
Not much.
  • Less smokers and more Australian like rules on smoking would be very nice (EG no smoking in areas where people are eating, including outdoors). It would be nice to sit down on a terrace at a restaurant and not worry if a chain smoker is going to sit down at the table next to you.
  • More exotic food and longer shop opening times would be nice (seeing the supermarkets closed at 18:30 was a hell of a shock at first) but I have gotten used to that.
---Regrets---
  • Not getting a language certificate before.
  • Not joining a club. I have looked but really nothing has taken my fancy.
---Changes with time---
  • I have gotten too used to the landscape. I still admire the view from the train window, but it is never as special or exciting as during the first few months.
  • My town has seen an increase in English speakers. Mostly due to the growth/arrival of a few big MedTech firms.
  • E-bikes are increasingly everywhere. I had never seen one before I arrived and was surprised to see them all over town. Now they are all over the countryside too with mountain E-bikes being very common.
  • The climate seems to be getting warmer and drier every year.
  • The amount of rubbish and anti-social noise (especially blue-tooth speakers) seems to be getting worse. People seem especially unable to bother carrying their empty cans and disposable BBQ with them from the riverside during summer. Thankfully it isn’t common in the countryside, but the number of people who need an absurdly loud speaker at all times is sad.
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2020.09.24 18:31 ICIJ We’re some of the FinCEN Files journalists who revealed how banks profit from money laundering. Ask Us Anything!

Hello!
We’re a few of the reporters and editors who worked on the FinCEN Files investigation – a 16-month exposé that reveals the role of global banks in industrial-scale money laundering.
At the heart of the investigation are secret documents, which BuzzFeed News shared with the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists and its 100 media partners.
Our work offers an unprecedented view of global financial corruption, the banks enabling it, and the government agencies that fail to stop it.
We have:
– Emilia Díaz-Struck, ICIJ's research editor and Latin American coordinator.
– Spencer Woodman, ICIJ reporter (twitter)
– Will Ftizgibbon, ICIJ reporter and Africa partner coordinator (twitter)
Read all of BuzzFeed News’ reporting here, and ICIJ’s reporting here.
Proof: https://i.redd.it/bsi2vd9np4p51.jpg
---
Update, 3pm ET: Thanks all for taking part! We always enjoy getting questions, and seeing how we learn from readers! =D We'll keep reporting on FinCEN Files, and more - if you want to stay up to date: www.icij.org/newsletter. Also we hang out on /PanamaPapers and /FincENFiles (which is very new!) But you can always message us on Reddit and we'll reply!
We also will try to answer more questions in days to come :) But we have to get back to reporting for now!! Thanks again!

submitted by ICIJ to IAmA [link] [comments]


2020.09.24 13:59 JBL_0 Mexican drug cartels could mess up the country’s most important lithium project

Mexican drug cartels could mess up the country’s most important lithium project
By Ben Heubl Engineering &Technology Magazine Published Tuesday, September 22, 2020

Mexico’s first lithium mine could be the nation’s insurance that it will profit from the global energy transition, or be evidence that it can’t handle the mining business. The firm in charge seems to be ignoring challenges that, if left unaddressed, could make Mexico miss out on a chance of a lifetime.
Over a decade ago, the country celebrated when a firm spotted 800,000 tonnes of lithium in the ground of central Mexico, but it wasn’t prepared for the lucky strike that was yet to come. In 2014, minerals company Bacanora Minerals Ltd hit the jackpot by locating reserves 10 times this size.
Found underground in the northern desert state of Sonora, Mexico, an arid region measuring 1.4 times the size of England, was just “above eight million tonnes” of the white gold – 250 years’ worth of resource – Bacanora claims. Sonora’s reserves alone can compete with entire countries (see graphic); Chile, for instance, with its nine million tonnes, is one of the top lithium exporters. In 2022, when extraction is due to begin, Sonora Lithium’s (SLL) supply will be almost as important.

The risk of a shortfall in lithium supply is rising, experts say. Covid-19 has played some part. There are now more bottlenecks in the market than before the pandemic; more so because of the larger macro-economic trends that keep lithium prices low and detract investments from the industry. Lithium is essential for electric vehicles and batteries, for instance. As one of the few lithium mines in the Americas – as opposed to lithium brine extraction in the South and the US – SLL could support electrifying transport towards net-zero locally.
Bacanora’s CEO Peter Secker spoke to E&T; he doesn’t hide his pride in the firm’s progress: “We are doing reasonably well.” He says it usually takes at least a decade to reach extraction stage but SLL is on the way to starting it in eight years, with just two more years now needed to engineer and build the mine.
Part of this unstoppable success is down to Bacanora’s joint venture partner, Ganfeng Lithium. Chinese Ganfeng is one of the world’s largest and most successful lithium producers that brings a lot of experience to the table says Andrew Miller, product director at intelligence firm Benchmark Mineral Intelligence.
SLL considers itself fortunate that Ganfeng’s expertise covers almost all entry lithium extraction and the production supply chain. In China, lithium entities control nearly half of the global lithium production, but Ganfeng seems comfortable enough to act alone. However, elsewhere it prefers to partner up, Secker says.

Bacanora is a local partner – it used to be listed in Canada as well as the UK but is now 100 per cent British. “We fit into [Ganfeng’s] expansion plan,” Secker says. Ganfeng entered a 22.5 per cent joint venture with Bacanora and committed to engineering the open pit mine.
The Mexican government were convinced to give this private joint venture a chance, and Covid-19 only had a subdued effect – Secker estimates the pandemic only delays the project timeline by about five to six months. Before the pandemic hit, Ganfeng’s management planned to wait to engineer the mine until after the Chinese New Year.
Mexico is largely a newcomer to lithium mining. This puts it in a weaker position, some say. But Benchmark Mineral Intelligence’s Miller says two SLL partners bring so much of their own longstanding expertise – especially Ganfeng – and contacts to the table that problems in the mining itself are unlikely.

Yet E&T found that concerns over the mining are the least of Bacanora’s worries. Mexico’s powerful drug cartels and nascent violence are a reasonable cause for concern; they could jeopardise the entire endeavour. For drug cartels to pivot into lithium trading is not entirely unfeasible, though other scenarios are more likely as mines are increasingly under attack by violent groups and organised crime, E&T learned. Security experts say mine owners must prepare for theft of valuable equipment, and extortion and kidnapping of workers.
Bacanora’s remote location may make it a desirable target for cartels. Its open-pit mine will be in a secluded spot around 11km away from a small town called Bacadehuachi, which has fewer than 1,380 inhabitants. There is lots of violence and trafficking near the US border and the mine is only 170km south of the border into Arizona. Alejandro Hope, a Mexican-based security expert, adds that state authorities have little in the way of resources to provide protection. Analysists at intelligence outfit BNamericas, covering Latin America, agree and say that Sonora has an uncomfortable history in mining robberies. Hope says the chances of Bacanora being subjected to extortion are not theoretical: “I dare to say it is even likely that the Sonora mine will be targeted.”

Faced with this reality, Secker says he doubts the cartels are interested in his mining product; previous mining thefts mainly focused on gold or silver. Yet cartels don’t shy away from experimentation. In April, a carefully planned attack involving a Cessna 206 aircraft was carried out on a mine in Sonora’s west where thieves stole gold and silver alloy from the Los Mulatos mine in Sahuaripa. Reports said the operation took only minutes. Last year’s doré bar theft of items worth between $6m and $8m, at the Noche Buena mine in the west of Sonora, was one of the biggest heists to be carried out in years.
Drug cartels are not short in ambition and sophistication, as Tom Wainwright, editor at the Economist and ex-Mexico correspondent, knows. He wrote a book a few years ago about Mexican drug cartels and their increased trend towards diversification into non-drug-related business areas. If cartels can figure out how to find experts to advise on drilling into gasoline pipes that stretch across to America and trade it on the black market, it’s worth considering the possibility that they would be interested in the SLL mining project.
Alongside this, there are other sectors that local cartels have broken into. Earlier in the year, news reports said Mexican drug cartels started trading avocados in Mexico’s south.
Security expert Hope explains that there are various ways for cartels to make trouble for SLL. Organised crime and irregular armed groups can charge protection money and threaten to hold up construction efforts by, for example, blocking roads. Many mining companies would openly liaise with organised crime groups; they wouldn’t even stop to target international mining companies, Hope says.
One of the most audacious examples of cartels moving away from drug trafficking is the trading of such commodities as iron ore. Around 2013 and 2014, such techniques reached a palpable peak when the military ceased control of Lazaro Cardenas, Mexico’s largest seaport. The government order was to strike after one legendary cartel earned more money from trades going through the port than from the drug business itself. La Familia and The Knights Templar cartels were diversifying into the mining business, Bosworth says. The military campaign at the port somewhat backfired, he argues. It cost a fortune and, despite making the port safer, it failed to ensure safety in the rest of the Michoacán state and created smaller, potentially more violent groups.

A similar thing may happen in Sonora. Since the takedown of Chapo Guzman, groups that were more tightly controlled by the active north Sinaloa cartel suddenly splintered away into smaller independent groups. They would now roam freely in the state and, as such, are more violent as they look for new business. These off-shoots usually don’t attack each other. Yet Sinaloa’s lack of top-down control became more dangerous as they looked for alternative ways to make money from extortion and violence, Bosworth says.
https://preview.redd.it/pw52d6ip43p51.jpg?width=750&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=50b5b0f72827f71060ecd00c325970a3eb66f9c8
E&T’s analysis checked Bacanora’s feasibility study from 2018 – a 261-page document – for any hints that security was part of the assessment. It wasn’t. CEO Secker says it should already have been part of the due diligence process when his company raised equity in the UK: “It [security] never had any impact on what we do,” he says, adding that his company operated in the country for the past 10 years and never had trouble with extortion or anything like it. To date, it invested $50m-60m in Mexico.
Security experts caution against taking these new developments lightly. The whole company must be considered; upper management of a mining company in Mexico may not even know it leaks money to a drug cartel, Wainwright says. He once interviewed a person familiar with the matter and learnt that extortion at the local-regional-manager level failed to alert upper management of a Mexican company in an international case. The source said the firm paid money to the local cartel for years without realising and it only came out because the regional manager left and the affair was exposed.
Secker explains that the south of the country is more violent than the north. “If you were in southern Mexico, states like Guerrero, you would probably be more concerned, but not where we are operating.” But crime is growing. In recent regional homicide data, E&T found that the north grew increasingly lawless; with Sonora’s homicide rate jumping by 38 per cent between 2019 and 2020 to 42 per 100,000 people, it is now comparable with other violent southern states. The Mexican regional average, for instance, is around 25 per 100,000. Authorities are less able to control the violence, experts say.
The US Department of State Travel Advisory thinks Mexico is at level 2 (‘exercise increased caution due to crime and kidnapping’) on the travel advisory scale. For Sonora, which is at level 3, it recommends to ‘reconsider traveling due to crime’.
Monthly statistics on crime from the Secretariado Ejecutivo del Sistema Nacional de Seguridad Pública suggests for Sonora that rates for extortions, car robbery with violence and homicides were all rising. Last May, its kidnapping rate jumped to 21 instances, comparable to the most violent places in the whole of Mexico.
Some hope new officials may improve the state’s security situation and turn things around. Mexico’s first secretary of security and civilian protection, Alfonso Durazo, was born and raised in Sonora and may have some compassion for the cause. Durazo wants to become governor of Sonora but, after a tragic shooting last November, the odds are stacked against him. Three women and six children, who were dual US-Mexican Mormons, were executed in an ambush while travelling through a remote area of northern Mexico. The location of the shooting (see map) was less than 100km from the Sonora lithium mine.
E&T asked Secker what precautions the company takes, and how he would deter attacks and protect workers and equipment. “The mine site is fenced, and we always travel in convoys of two or three vehicles, but you would do that in any country, not just in Mexico. We take the normal security precautions for working in a remote site but nothing specific to cartels in Mexico,” Secker says.
The chance of an attack, however, may affect the mining business of a company. In 2018, Canadian mining company Pan American Silver Corp suffered a rise in crime and violence; along roads where it transported personnel and materials to its Dolores mine in the northern city of Madera, less than 100km away from the Sonora lithium mine, the company was attacked and robbed. It went on to announce plans to roll back operations in the country.
Other challenges
There is also the risk of corruption. Many companies can sing a song of Mexico’s endemic level of corruption. It includes graft among large international conglomerates, too. Emilio Lozoya, the former head of the state oil firm Pemex, said he accepted millions of dollars of bribes from Brazilian construction giant Odebrecht to help the 2012 election campaign of former President Enrique Peña Nieto. Mexico now faces one of the biggest criminal investigation probes in history. Bacanora’s executive team may be better positioned here as it has connections that reach into the Mexican government, E&T discovered. One of the firm’s non-executive directors, Dr Andres Antonius, previously held positions within the Government of Mexico as undersecretary for energy policy, and a staff member at the Agriculture Secretariat.
https://preview.redd.it/p93hz47s43p51.jpg?width=750&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=ae930881d51d23053a518602012f1ae45ba46d51
There are environmental concerns, too. Lithium mining has a lower footprint over brine extraction, which is positive (E&T produced an extensive investigation on firms in Chile). Yet, if performed incorrectly, it can have devastating effects on the local environment. Precedence dictates that this risk is feasible. For instance, according to 2018 reports, at a lithium mine in Tibet harmful toxins leaked into the environment and polluted a local river, killing animals and affecting locals.
Critics indicated that the River Bavispe runs through Sonora’s mining concession territory (see map). The feasibility study does mention the river basin, yet the mining site can still access groundwater. The report says that up to 10.7Mm3 is available annually from the Bacadéhuachi Aquifer. One concern is what happens to local water resources if the region hits a major drought? E&T found that Bacanora’s mining concessions are closely located to local towns including Granados and Nácori Chico.
https://preview.redd.it/yd14p9iu43p51.jpg?width=750&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=1b3ffe4a44fc97a509da01d8870b32eb3a3d9b7e
Secker is confident his company won’t mess up. It received all the necessary certificates, he says. The Sonora mine will be a zero-discharge operation and won’t leak a drop of water. It’s being recycled back into the ground.
Yet the stakes remain high and failure could mean more than just financial loss. Lithium experts say the world’s supply is on the verge of failure. Bacanora’s project could diffuse some pressure, but not for the US. For the next couple of years at least, the US will not receive a single ounce of the precious lithium from the Mexican mine. The deal has already been signed: Ganfeng in China will take half of the mined volume while the other half goes to Japan, where a leading trading company called Hanwa will process it.
It raises concerns that foreign companies could exploit Mexico’s resources and leave it in a poorer state. It happened with international conglomerates in Africa, though not for lithium but other minerals. A 2017 report by Global Justice Now found that much more wealth is leaving the world’s most impoverished continent than entering it.
Another hurdle to overcome is distance. Having to ship lithium halfway around the world isn’t ideal, experts say, and lithium firms are increasingly coming under environmental pressure. Consumers and other parts of the supply chain demand lithium miners to optimise operations and reduce the carbon impact of their transport. Shipping lithium carbonate more than 12,000km from the port of Guaymas to China, or the 11,000km to Japan, could add substantially to carbon emissions. Annually, the Bacanora plans to ship 35,000 tonnes of lithium carbonate by 2026/2027, when it reaches stage two of its agreement. This may cause between 7,300 and 13,400 tonnes in CO2 emissions per annum, according to E&T calculations. Benchmark Mineral Intelligence’s Miller says “it doesn’t necessarily make economic or technical sense to be shipping refined lithium chemicals in from China into the US or EU markets when you could locate some of that production closer to the end market”.
For the US to miss out on the deal has other effects. The country is under pressure to get lithium for its nascent EV and battery sector from somewhere else; it is developing its own lithium sources, but will always be dependent on other countries and – historically – has only accounted for 5 per cent of global lithium production, mainly from brine.
Bacanora’s agreement to exclude Mexico’s neighbouring country may still make waves down the road. America leadership has time to contemplate a better trade relationship with Mexico, and has good reason to do so, with some saying that America’s lithium demand may double or even triple by 2030. Meanwhile, Bacanora prudently avoids being caught in the middle of the US-Mexican trade war that President Donald Trump waged fiercely. A Joe Biden presidency seems more open for cooperating with Mexico. In the long-term it could lead “from Mexico being a security threat, which is how the Trump administration views it, to Mexico being a partner”, Miller says.
Mexico’s future seems bright and state officials have high hopes. Francisco Quiroga, undersecretary for mining, named investors from at least five countries who have expressed interest in Mexico’s lithium industry. Quiroga admits there are still several operational, commercial and financial challenges, while others, including Mexico’s Secretary for Environment Victor Toledo, see a problem in private companies running the show. Toledo reckons the lithium mine should be controlled by the government, but the President ruled against it. With government control, the mines could have sparked a domestic EV industry. The government thinks it doesn’t have the required resources.
https://preview.redd.it/22zkfztw43p51.jpg?width=750&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=8ee9fe0035e5fc634197e058af90bffcea42be08
Toledo received harsh criticism from Mexico’s largest union, which said nationalisation isn’t viable and will scare off foreign investors. One central question remains: if the government nationalised Sonora reserves and mined it itself, would it invest more to keep security high and workers safe? After all, it knows its violent groups better than foreign companies. Without guidance, Mexico’s private lithium extractors may have to learn from other countries – Bolivia, for example, with the largest lithium resources of 21 million tonnes, also struggles with safety and extortion.
Bacanora’s CEO Secker is convinced there won’t be any problems: “We had never anyone shot on our site and we don’t intend to.” But better safe than sorry. After the McEwen Mining refinery was robbed by a Mexican cartel in the Sinaloa state in 2015, Rob McEwen, CEO of the Canadian mining company, regretted how lightly he took the threat of the cartel business.
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2020.09.19 20:55 StevenStevens43 Humber the Hun

Humber the Hun
Humber the Hun:
Humber the Hun was supposed to have been part of the invasions of Albion, beginning in 1112 BC.
Humber the Hun
Humber the Hun (Gaelic: Emer or Éber mac Ír, or Éber Don mac Ír Ulaid) son of Ír and grandson of Miled, was a legendary king of so-called "Huns" who, according to Gafridian legend, invaded the British Isles in about the 12th century BC. His people successfully conquered Scotia but he himself was drowned during his campaign against Southern Britain. His sons became the Kings of Ulster and ultimately Dál Riata, the earliest Kingdom of Scotland. At some point, he began to equated with his namesake Donn, the Gaelic God of the Dead.
Latin:
Now, nobody knows who the Huns are.
Particularly modern Latin speakers.
In the Latin language, Scotti means Gaels.
Scotti
Scoti or Scotti is a Latin name for the Gaels,[1]
Link for photo
Royal Scottish flag
Hun:
However, even today, the Gaelic word for Scot, is Hun.
This means that Gaelic speakers might have a slightly better grasp on who the Huns might have been, than the modern Romanised Latin speaker.
It also means that when modern day Scots during football matches with the Auld enemy sing "Go home ya Hun", they are actually "wrong".
The Huns were the Scoloti.
Luckily the Scots don't face too much shame regarding this fact, as the other half of the Auld enemy are also unaware of the fact that they are infact "not" the Huns.
Pop culture
Modern Ulster Scots and other Scots Protestants are still referred to as Huns by Gaels.[10
Link for photo
2011 Gaelic speaking parts of Scotland
Hungary:
Now obviously, the word "Hun" is pretty much synonymous with the country named Hungary, suggesting that Huns may have certain origins in this area.
After-all, Humber the Hun is said to have arrived in the Humber from Germany.
Of course, there was no such place as Germany in 1112 BC.
It was Gaul, and Gaul was a name that pertained to the entire area of mainland inhabited by Gaelic speaking Gauls, which at this point in history, would have included Hungary.
Mediaeval history
When Locrinus raided Humber's ships after his death, he found Humber's consort Estrildis,[2][3] the daughter of the King of Germany there.
Link for photo
Hungary
Hungarians:
The modern day word for "Hun", as in Hungary, derived from the Huns from Eurasia, not the Huns from Humber.
Well, not immediately anyway.
Etymology
The "H" in the name of Hungary (and Latin Hungaria) is most likely due to founded historical associations with the Huns, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars.
Link for photo
Hunnic warrior
Scythian sphere:
However, the land of Hungary pre-dated the country of Hungary, and back in the Iron age, Hungary did not exist, and was infact part of the Scythian sphere.
History of Hungary
Hungary in its modern (post-1946) borders roughly corresponds to the Great Hungarian Plain (the Pannonian basin). During the Iron Age, it was at the boundary of Celtic, Illyrian and Iranian (Scythian) cultural spheres.
Link for photo
Alba Albanian flag
Royal Scoloti:
Now, Scythia was a "big" region.
It also took in an Iranian area known as Sogdiana.
The aristocrats were known as the Royal Scoloti.
Scythians
.[10][13] Based in what is modern-day Ukraine and southern Russia, the Scythians called themselves Scoloti and were led by a nomadic warrior aristocracy known as the Royal Scythians.
Scythia
Scythia
Sogdiana:
Now Sogdiana, whilst being part of Scythia, in turn, ruled an empire which stretched to the border of China.
Sogdia
Sogdia (/ˈsɒɡdiə/) (Sogdian: soɣd) or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan, such as Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent, and Shahrisabz. Sogdiana was also a province of the Achaemenid Empire,
Link for photo
Sogdia
Sogdiana princesses:
During the annexation of the empire by Alexander the Great, Alexander had Sogdiana princesses sent to breed with his Greek friends.
Biography
Antiochus I was half Sogdian,[2][3] his mother Apama, daughter of Spitamenes, being one of the eastern princesses whom Alexander the Great had given as wives to his generals in 324 BC.[4]
Link for photo
Alexander the Great
Auld Edina:
It is likely that Scotlands current day capital city of Edinburgh (Auld Edina), from the root word Dun Eideann, is derived from the Royal Scoloti sogdiana.
Edinburgh
Edinburgh (/ˈɛdɪnbərə/ (📷listen);[8][9][10] Scots: Edinburgh; Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Èideann
Link for photo
Athens of the North
Xiongnu:
Now, this is where the Xiongnu come in to this.
The Xiongnu were a "Nomadic" tribe, and one might know to suspect, that when you see the word "Nomadic" it is likely referring to a certain Aryan peoples that got Nomadism in to their DNA after requiring to leave their homelands during the younger dryas.
Xiongnu
The Xiongnu (Chinese: 匈奴; Wade–Giles: Hsiung-nu, [ɕjʊ́ŋ.nǔ]) were a tribal confederation[3] of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Eurasian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD. Chinese sources report that Modu Chanyu, the supreme leader after 209 BC, founded the Xiongnu Empire.[4]
Link for photo
Xiongnu territory
Huaxia people:
Now Chinese history draws a distinction between the more civilised Huaxia people (Indigenous Mongolians) and the more barbaric Nomadic Xiongnu.
Early history
.[19] It also draws a distinct line between the settled Huaxia people (Chinese) to the pastoral nomads (Xiongnu), characterizing it as two polar groups in the sense of a civilization versus an uncivilized society
Hua-Yi distinction:
It is called the Hua-Yi distinction.
Hua-Yi distinction
The distinction between Huá and (Chinese: ; pinyin: Huá Yí zhī biàn), also known as Sino–barbarian dichotomy,[1] is an ancient Chinese concept that differentiated a culturally defined "China" (called Huá, Huaxia 華夏; Huáxià, or Xià ) from cultural or ethnic outsiders (, conventionally "barbarians"). Although Yí is often translated as "barbarian", other translations of this term in English include "foreigners",[2]
Modu Chanyu:
Now, the Xiongnu under Mody Chanyu, almost overthrew the Chinese emperor.
State formation
After forging internal unity, Modu Chanyu expanded the empire on all sides. To the north he conquered a number of nomadic peoples, including the Dingling of southern Siberia. He crushed the power of the Donghu people of eastern Mongolia and Manchuria as well as the Yuezhi in the Hexi Corridor of Gansu, where his son, Jizhu, made a skull cup out of the Yuezhi king. Modu also reoccupied all the lands previously taken by the Qin general Meng Tian.
Under Modu's leadership, the Xiongnu threatened the Han dynasty, almost causing Emperor Gaozu, the first Han emperor, to lose his throne in 200 BC.[31]
Link for photo
Xiongnu expansion
Chinese princesses and Great wall of China:
The Chinese decided to build a great wall, as a border to define the territory between Xiongnu and China, and to attempt to appease the Xiongnu, they began sending them Chinese princesses, along with other gifts including money and alcohol.
Marraige diplomacy
The Han sent princesses to marry Xiongnu leaders in their efforts to stop the border raids. Along with arranged marriages, the Han sent gifts to bribe the Xiongnu to stop attacking.[31] After the defeat at Pingcheng in 200 BC, the Han emperor abandoned a military solution to the Xiongnu threat. Instead, in 198 BC , the courtier Liu Jing&action=edit&redlink=1) [zh)] was dispatched for negotiations. The peace settlement eventually reached between the parties included a Han princess given in marriage to the chanyu (called heqin) (Chinese: 和親; lit.: 'harmonious kinship'); periodic gifts to the Xiongnu of silk, distilled beverages and rice; equal status between the states; and the Great Wall as mutual border.
Cant beat them, join them:
However, the raids did not stop, and the Hans Chinese decided to attempt to forge an alliance with them.
Marraige diplomacy
The Xiongnu also practiced marriage alliances with Han dynasty officers and officials who defected to their side. The older sister of the Chanyu (the Xiongnu ruler) was married to the Xiongnu General Zhao Xin, the Marquis of Xi who was serving the Han dynasty. The daughter of the Chanyu was married to the Han Chinese General Li Ling after he surrendered and defected.[39][40][41][42] Another Han Chinese General who defected to the Xiongnu was Li Guangli, general in the War of the Heavenly Horses, who also married a daughter of the Chanyu.[43]
Envoy:
Behind the backs of the Xiongnu, the Hans Chinese sent an envoy to go and explore the Western world and try and find an ally to help fight the Xiongnu, however the information received back from the envoy, put China into a state of emergency, and expelling the Xiongnu became a matter of urgency.
It is not know exactly what the message was, but i assume it was along the lines of "those people are everywhere".
Han xiongnu war
The Han dynasty made preparations for war when the Han Emperor Wu dispatched the explorer Zhang Qian to explore the mysterious kingdoms to the west and to form an alliance with the Yuezhi people in order to combat the Xiongnu. During this time Zhang married a Xiongnu wife, who bore him a son, and gained the trust of the Xiongnu leader.[45][46][47][48][49][50][51] While Zhang Qian did not succeed in this mission,[52] his reports of the west provided even greater incentive to counter the Xiongnu hold on westward routes out of China,
Link for photo
Han China
Southern Xiongnu & Northern xiongnu:
The result of the war, was that the Chinese would be successful in putting a barrier between themselves and the Xiongnu, by placing a southern Xiongnu between themselves and a Northern Xiongnu.
Southern Xiongnu and Northern Xiongnu
In 48 AD, a confederation of eight Xiongnu tribes in Bi's power base in the south, with a military force totalling 40,000 to 50,000 men, seceded from Punu's kingdom and acclaimed Bi as chanyu. This kingdom became known as the Southern Xiongnu.
600 year empire destroyed:
In the year 439 AD, 600 years of Xiongnu living in this area came to an end, and finally China rid themselves of the last remnants of Xiongnu.
Juqu and)
By 439, the Juqu power was destroyed by the Northern Wei. Their remnants were then settled in the city of Gaochang before being destroyed by the Rouran.
Tribute:
Now, the Xiongnu done to the Chinese, exactly what the Huns would do to the Romans.
Significance
The Xiongnu confederation was unusually long-lived for a steppe empire. The purpose of raiding China was not simply for goods, but to force the Chinese to pay regular tribute.
Contemporary understanding:
Now, believe it or not, the Xiongnu being the same group as the Huns, is actually now the contemporary view amongst historians and scholars.
However contemporary, is not the same thing as general consensus.
Huns
.[70] Although the theory that the Xiongnu were precursors of the Huns known later in Europe is now accepted by many scholars, it has yet to become a consensus view.
Link for photo
Hunnic invasion
Turkic descendency:
Now, Turks claim that the Xiongnu were Turkish, because they are descended from Xiongnu.
However ascended, and descended, are two different things.
I am sure it is possible, that by the time the Sogdians came out of Mongolia, they were now quite Turkic.
Turkic
Uyghur Khagans claimed descent from the Xiongnu (according to Chinese history Weishu, the founder of the Uyghur Khaganate was descended from a Xiongnu ruler).[86]
Both the 7th-century Chinese History of the Northern Dynasties[87] and the Book of Zhou,[88] an inscription in the Sogdian language, report the Göktürks to be a subgroup of the Xiongnu.[89][90]
Iranian ancestors:
However, scholars tend to agree that when the Xiongnu first arrived in Mongolia, they were Northern Iranian speakers.
Iranian
Harold Walter Bailey proposed an Iranian origin of the Xiongnu, recognizing all the earliest Xiongnu names of the 2nd century BC as being of the Iranian type.[9] This theory is supported by turkologist Henryk Jankowski).[10] Central Asian scholar Christopher I. Beckwith notes that the Xiongnu name could be a cognate of Scythian, Saka and Sogdia, corresponding to a name for Northern Iranians.[27][
Chinese Hun:
Now, the word the Chinese used to refer to the Xiongnu as, translates pretty much in to English as "Hun".
Some may mistake this as the word "Hun" having Chinese origins.
However, it is more likely that the Chinese referred to them by a word similar to Hun, because, that is what the Xiongnu of the time likely referred to themselves as.
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]


2020.09.19 17:52 creatinsanivity Let's talk a Finnish icon: The Ismo Alanko primer

I was challenged into writing a primer on one of Finland's primary songwriters of all time by u/Zhanteimi at the LetsTalkMusic discord. So here's an album-by-album runthrough of his career!
Context
No artist's career begins with the first album, so naturally nor did Alanko's. Long story short, he was born in a highly artistic family (mother a poet, all siblings musicians), picked cello as his instrument of choice, found rock (especially the Hurriganes debut) and picked a guitar, wrote his first song 'Suck and Fuck All Night Long' (no recordings of this exist, but apparently one of his bands named itself after the song), and formed a number of bands with varying levels of success. His most succesful pre-Hassisen Kone band was a prog band called Sight, which got on the second place in the prog section of Finnish Rock Championship competition (in 1977 or 1978). After he finished high school in the spring of 1979, he moved to Stockholm for the summer. This turned out to be the decision that became the catalyst for huge parts of his career, including...
Hassisen Kone - Täältä tullaan Venäjä
While in Stockholm, Alanko caught wind of a new wave of rock beginning in Finland. A breath of fresh air in the previously stale rock scene. He returned to Joensuu and put together a band from his bandmates from Sight (Reijo Heiskanen and Harri Kinnunen), and Harri's then 17-year-old brother Jussi. They eventually named the band Hassisen Kone, after a sewing machine store in town (the deeply religious shopkeeper was not amused).
The band recorded an album-length demo in 1979 and were signed on a label relatively quickly. They were also qualified to enter the 1980 Finnish Rock Championship competition (even though the judges nearly disqualified them, for they thought they might be professional musicians performing under fake names), which they won, gaining reputation preceding the recording of their debut album.
In August of 1980, the band released Täältä tullaan Venäjä. Propelled by arguably the biggest hit single in Alanko's career, Rappiolla [which was hilariously covered by Metallica recently (which was spontaneously responded to by Ismo Alanko himself)], the album became a smash hit. The album provides variety from straight-up new wave punk to talkingheadsian grooves, schlager punk, simplified swing jazz, ska-infused rock, to whatever you'd categorise 'Viimeinen rock ennen aivokuolemaa' as. It's an ambitious yet consistent whole but, in my opinion, the weakest of the three Hassisen Kone albums. The youthful anarchic feel it has can be refreshing every now and then, but this burst of energy from an obviously young (only two of the bandmembers even in their 20s, band only half a year old) band is redirected better on the follow-up.
Hassisen Kone - Rumat sävelet
Following the release of their debut, the band found themselves in a position that many acts today would both fear and envy: they played hundreds of gigs in the second half of 1980 and the first half of 1981. The gruesome touring around the country took a toll on the young band, but that's only barely comparable to the toll that the audience took on them. For example, as time went by, the band grew tired of the audience drunkenly demanding 'Rappiolla', so they stopped playing the song altogether. This time of maturing and growing more and more cynical reflected on their sophomore effort.
Rumat sävelet should not necessarily be described as bleak per se, but it is certainly darker, tighter, and more mature than the band's debut. The band tackles sounds ranging from quasi-prog expression to post-punk, punk, psychobilly, and they take the talkingheadsian qualities into a sharper direction. The lyrics touch upon issues like love, exploitation, and sex (it's curious to think that probably the most explicit Finnish song about sex before this album was about "curly armpit hair", while Alanko dares to sing about penetration itself). I have to admit that I have a bit of a bias when it comes to this one though, as it's undoubtedly my favourite album of all time.
Hassisen Kone - Harsoinen teräs (and High Tension Wire)
In 1981, the band participated on a riverboat tour with a couple of other punk acts. During this tour, the bassist broke (drugs), Alanko met "Safka" Pekkonen, and the band was generally put under huge stress as the diet consisting mainly of alcohol began burning them down and their every move was documented by either film makers Mika and Aki Kaurismäki or the columnist documenting the tour for a zine. Despite all this, some of the better live recordings of the band come from this tour, and both the live album and the Kaurismäki documentary are worth digging up for the music.
After the tour, the band expanded into a septet with the addition of a keyboardist (Pekkonen), a saxophonist (Antti Seppo), and a percussionist (Hannu Porkka). The final form of the band was shaped during the rehearsals by the departure of guitarist Heiskanen, who was replaced by the guitar wizard Jukka Orma.
Released in March of 1982, Harsoinen teräs is the band's most artistically ambitious work. It's an album combining the band's prog leanings seamlessly with the band's new wave leanings, a polished whole that takes cues from I don't even know where. Reggae at least on a couple of tracks, prog and new wave on most, but the general sound is unlike anything I've ever encountered. The album was re-recorded in English as High Tension Wire later on in the year, after a tour had slightly tightened the band's sound. The decision to do so apparently came after the decision to disband the band, which makes it a very baffling addition to Hassisen Kone's discography. You'd think that they'd release an album in English as an attempt to break into international markets, right?
Sielun Veljet - Sielun Veljet
After Hassisen Kone was disbanded (in August 1982), Alanko had a schlager rock project that eventually turned into Sielun Veljet by December. The band was comprised of Alanko, Orma, a drummer veteran Alf Forsman, Alanko's Stockholm contact Jouko Hohko on bass, Vinski Viholainen doing lighting, and a future cult legend Jouni Mömmö doing "weird noises".
Sielun Veljet were signed in early 1983, but they refused to record a studio album because Viholainen's lighting work wouldn't show in a studio recording. Instead, as a compromise, they agreed on recording a live album where "the lighting would affect the ambiance". They set out to do this on a tour they began on March, planning on recording the first show and the last one. However, fate interfered and Orma accidentally cut tendons from his fingers during the tour while cutting bread, which made the recordings from the last show basically unusable due to his difficulties in adjusting to the situation (a very punk move to finish the tour even with torn tendons, by the way).
The live album is punk/post-punk goodness. It's noisy, no-wavey rock that really shows how the band took all the drugs in the process of writing these harsh, repetitive songs. It also shows that Alanko wished to abandon messing around with intricate compositions in favour of a more stripped and primal expression.
Sielun Veljet - Lapset
In summer of 1983, the band brightened up a bit to record this odd EP in a style following directly from the debut. It's angular and distorted, yet the melodies are more melodic and jamming less bleak. It's also the home of the only a capella punk song I've ever heard.
Sielun Veljet - Hei soturit
In 1984, Sielun Veljet took their first coherent step toward a pop/rock idiom with their first studio album. Hei soturit is the awkward outlier between the band's grimy punk era and commercial rock era. It feels like a punk band working with a producer who doesn't understand punk, but even the clumsy production doesn't entirely hide the fact that some of these songs are absolutely iconic. From punk to garage rock, general oddness, and flirting even with metal, this selection of songs does provide good variety for anyone digging deeper in Alanko's body of work.
Sielun Veljet - L'amourha
The Sielun Veljet breakthrough album! The beginning of their rock era of albums, an only mildly angular affair with anthemic choruses and a muscular production. It was recorded after the band had toured all over Europe, honing their sound and Alanko finding a lot to say about international affairs and the human condition.
There are a plenty of anecdotes from the time of release of this album. The song 'On mulla unelma' was written by Alanko in Spain, when he was recovering from a disease (can't remember which one. Dysentery?) and bitter about nationalism, and it caused quite a scandal when the band unexpectedly debuted it on live television. They performed an impromptu Red Riding Hood play on their album release party instead of playing music. One of the members went missing in Russia for days after the band found a corpse. All of their instruments were stolen in Spain. There'd a lot to unpack from 1984-5 alone.
Sielun Veljet - Kuka teki huorin
The follow-up to L'amourha takes the band to a funkier place. It's a minor downgrade from the previous effort, a slightly directionless and overpolished effort that has diverse variety from RHCP-like funk rock to tango-infused rock, tribal chants, and what's essentially watered down imitation of their earlier work. It's an easy album to criticise, yet I don't find ever to be outright bad. A lot of it is extremely forgettable though
L'amourder - Ritual and Shit-Hot
Sielun Veljet recorded a bunch of their songs in English as L'amourder. Most of them follow the originals very closely, but there are a few surprises. The biggest change is on the translation of 'Tuulelta vastauksen saan', which has been turned into a cover of Bob Dylan's 'Blowin' in the Wind'.
Sielun Veljet - Suomi - Finland
Suomi - Finland begins the last era of the band, as this album brings more acoustic instruments to the mix and begins to flirt with psychedelia in a way that will culminate on the follow-up. It feels like a breaking point for the band, as it sprawls on multiple directions at once, the musicians seemingly having lost focus. It feels like a band slowly drifring apart, yet it remains consistently captivating as the different influences come together in this chaotic work.
"Various Artists" - Onnenpyörä
Sielun Veljet performed under a number of false identities on their Onnenpyörä-tour, four of which make an appearance on this recording. All of these are cover bands of sorts, and each one of them had a different repertoire of songs they played on these wildly differing sets. The most noteworthy of these personae are the pavillion dance band Kullervo Kivi ja Gehenna-yhtye and the rock band Leputation of the Slaves, the two having the most songs on the record.
Sielun Veljet - Softwood Music Under Slow Pillars
Who would have thought that the noisy punk band in 1983 would eventually release what could be called a psychedelic flamenco album in 1989? Many factors come together here, as the band continues on their effort to sell their music internationally by making the biggest left turn in memory. Orma's fascination with flamenco combines here with influences Alanko picked up in India and what could be called a somewhat logical progression from the budding psychedelia of Suomi - Finland. It's a weird album, that's for sure. A bit inconsistent, but easily among the strangest albums I've ever heard.
Ismo Alanko - Kun Suomi putos puusta
In 1990, Alanko found himself in a situation where Sielun Veljet had almost run its course and he could finally start building a solo career. He recorded this solo debut as a quasi-concept album about rural flight, combining the various interest he wasn't able to pursue with the band into a unique singesongwriter album of sorts. It's a classic album and, in some ways, an ideal entry point into Alanko's work as it feels like it's his personal expression in its purest form.
The music on the album sounds mainly like pop rock of sorts, but it also takes cues from melancholic singesongwriter stuff, joyous showtunes, post-punk akin to Nick Cave's work, and some field recording experiments. It finds a good balance between artistic ambition and catchiness, and it's home to some of the most iconic tracks in Ismo Alanko songbook.
Sielun Veljet - Musta laatikko
Do you know Tom Waits' Orphans? This one is kind of like that. Three discs filled with random stuff recorded over years.
The first disc, "Muistinmenetys", is one third a new studio album (very weird new direction to take, something that feels like a cross between chill hippie jamming and 80s dance pop), one third music from some production, and one third short excerpts from live performances. The second disc, "Taudinkuva", is mainly live performances of late 80s Sielun Veljet songs, Tuomari Nurmio covers, and some other oddities. And finally, the third disc, "Isältä pojalle", is a full pavillion dance set, the band LARPing as a suave and jazzy house band playing waltz, tango, schlager, and anything that's really expected of them.
This album is definitely a skippable one, but there are a few gems that an Ismo Alanko fan might get a lot out of. The flamenco pieces are cool, the Tuomari Nurmio covers are nice (more about those later), and that pavillion dance set is unexpectedly fun, especially if you're not already familiar with the tradition.
Ismo Alanko - Jäätyneitä lauluja
Alanko goes electronic! This album was originally lauded as cutting edge and a sign of significant artistic growth, but it has definitely fallen in popularity over the years. It sounds extremely like a product of its time, so if you like non-industrial synthpop-y rock from 90s, this is exactly your thing. Overall, it's still very surprising how many Alanko live staples come from this album though, and how some of his live bands have improved on all of them.
Ismo Alanko - Taiteilijaelämää
If someone doesn't think that Kun Suomi putos puusta is Alanko's magnum opus, they usually pick this one. Taiteilijaelämää feels like a combination of the first two solo albums (acoustic, electric, and electronic joining hands in harmony), but brought into the mid-90s rock idiom. The result is an interesting album that lacks real highs but remains consistently accessible, and the one Ismo Alanko work I've heard to have resonated with Beck fans for some reason.
Ismo Alanko - I-r-t-i
I made the mistake of learning that this album was written in only two weeks (because Alanko wanted to test himself), and now that's all I can think of while listening to it. This does feel halfbaked. The accessible rock sound it has is underproduced and covers up lazy songwriting more than once. That said, Alanko has later on proven that some of these songs can be absolutely amazing live, and the demo-like quality many of these tracks have can be seen as a feature instead of a bug. Pushing its flaws aside, I feel that it is underappreciated as an album, and feel like its high points deserve more attention.
Ismo Alanko Säätiö - Pulu
Säätiö was an interesting group. I'm honestly still a bit unclear whether they should be considered Alanko's backing band, a band that just happened to capitalise on his name, or a fullblown collective of musicians. Alanko's statements concerning the group together with the changing lineups on Säätiö albums both point to all three options. What I do know is that the band has two distinct eras, the first one kickstarted by Pulu.
I genuinely believe that the first iterarion of Säätiö is the most important band Alanko worked with. The amount of pure talent in that band is staggering with Jussi Kinnunen (Hassisen Kone) on bass, Teho Majamäki (HC Andersen, Tapani Rinne, Ismo Alanko Teholla) on percussion, Kimmo Pohjonen (you will want to check his solo stuff) on accordion, and Marko Timonen (Värttinä, Tuomari Nurmio) on drums giving Alanko's songwriting a fascinating folk rock spin, reeking of schlager and eastern mysticism. Pulu is an album that seeps nostalgia, is radical enough to upset traditional folk nerds, is accessible enough to have produced multiple Alanko live staples, and is significant enough a twist on Alanko's tropes to sound fresh even in his eclectic body of work. Yet, I feel like it's so self-referential that I feel like recommending it as anyone's first Ismo Alanko album could be a mistake.
Ismo Alanko Säätiö - Luonnossa
Säätiö playing acoustic renditions from the entire Ismo Alanko songbook, from Täältä tullaan Venäjä to Pulu. An exciting set, and definitely one of the best live albums I've ever heard. The band reworks this wide variety of songs into captivating folk rock, transforming the music into forms that defy expectations. There are some duds though, but not all fan favourites can sound great with just one band.
Ismo Alanko Säätiö - Sisäinen solarium
This is possibly the weirdest Ismo Alanko album to this date. It continues with nearly the same lineup as on Pulu, but takes the music in a radically new direction, exploring what modernised folk could be rather than wallowing on nostalgia. This means updating the largely acoustic instrumentation with both electric and electronic instruments, and creating an unpredictable tapestry of music with influences that are surprisingly difficult to pinpoint. Some say this kind of experimentation cheapens traditional folk (which is something I can agree with regarding some songs on this album), but I'm not sure if such a clearcut statement can be made of the full album. It's certainly aiming for a sound of its own.
Ismo Alanko Säätiö - Hallanvaara
This is where Säätiö's status as a band becomes complicated. There's absolutely no reason to call this anything but an Ismo Alanko solo album, so marketing it as an Ismo Alanko Säätiö album is baffling to say the least. I mean, the only constants on this album are Alanko himself, the producemulti-instrumentalist Riku Mattila, and various symphonic elements (I don't want to downplay the work the symphonic orchestra and the string section do on this album, but they have been used quite haphazardly). There are three members from the previous Säätiö albums involved in this project: Marko Timonen on nine tracks, Samuli Laiho on seven tracks, and Kimmo Pohjonen on one track. In addition to this, there's the bassist of the next iteration of Säätiö, Jarno Karjalainen, on six tracks. Thus, there are Säätiö band members playing on the majority of these tracks, but never as a full band.
That all being said, I believe this to be the best Säätiö album. The melancholic pieces are beautifully fragile, the pop tracks are catchy, the massive songs are massive, and the atmospheric pieces are chillingly well-arranged. And even the weaker songs here are excellent live, making this album probably the richest one to mine for a live set of any kind.
Ismo Alanko Säätiö - Elävää musiikkia
Honestly, this feels like a bit of a throwaway live album. On one hand, these rock renditions of a great setlist of songs are unique but, on the other hand, none of these performances improve on the studio recordings. 'Kansallispäivä' and 'Julkinen eläin' come really close though, both being sharper and meaner than the 80s versions.
Ismo Alanko Säätiö - Minä ja pojat
The first album with the second iteration of the band. Fuzzy rock in similar vein to Smashing Pumpkins and their kin, but played through the lense of Alanko's style of songwriting. It's never as hard-hitting or catchy as an album by a great rock band would be -- all of the songs soften up during the chorus -- but the youthful and slightly naivistic touch is welcome after a string of artistically ambitious albums. That said, I'm only attached to a single song on the whole album, which is definitely not a good sign.
Ismo Alanko Säätiö - Ruuhkainen taivas
The second (and last) studio album of the second iteration of Säätiö is a different beast than the first one, taking the rock approach to a slightly more complex direction. It's more mature and chromatic than the first album, yet I personally find it to sound slightly less inspired. However, at the same time, it does have more tracks that I would consider keepers and the general sound is harder to define. Thus, it's definitely a divisive album, conflicting.
I'm not sure how to describe the sound of this album. It's unmistakeably early 2000s rock, sounding like an average Finnish rock band from the era, yet the songwriting and the production also remind me of the band Wire out of all things. It's a digestible alternative/indie rock sound, whenever it doesn't abruptly go in a new direction.
Sielun Veljet - Otteita Tuomari Nurmion laulukirjasta
Remember those random Tuomari Nurmio covers on Musta Laatikko? Turns out, Sielun Veljet recorded a full album of those in (I assume) late 80s. They didn't end up using those recordings for anything, so they were packed away and stored somewhere. Years went by and a good portion of those recordings were destroyed due to poor storing conditions, but someone was eventually inspired to put the surviving songs to good use.
You'll be in for a treat, if you like Sielun Veljet and have never heard anything by Tuomari Nurmio. Most of these covers are originally from Nurmio's early 80s albums, his strange new wave turned into the angular rock Sielun Veljet perfected. Some of these songs only barely work, some sound like Sielun Veljet originals, but most are just serviceable covers. It's still a good album though.
Ismo Alanko Teholla - Blanco spirituals
After putting Säätiö on hold (perhaps indefinitely), Alanko joined forces with Teho Majamäki, the first iteration Säätiö percussionist. Together they stripped down a number of Ismo Alanko songbook staples to a form they could perform as a duo, essentially bringing the strengths of Alanko's live performances alone together with the strengths of him performing with a small ensemble. This endeavour proved succesful, so the two recorded two albums of original music as well.
The music of Blanco spirituals is surprisingly full. The two musicians fill space well, with Alanko singing and playing chord instruments (mainly guitar and piano), while Majamäki stretches himself as thin as possible, working a drumset, vibes, an array of percussions, an oscillating delay pedal, and singing backing vocals. It's usually at least two of those at the same time, often three. Him working in a live environment is a sight to behold.
This is honestly one of my favourite Ismo Alanko albums. The stripped down arrangements bring the most out of Alanko's songwriting. The selection of songs highlight very different sides of his style, from theatrical piano ballads to singalong acoustic guitar romps, silly pop songs, and trance-inducing rock. It's by no means a perfect album, but these simple songs all work in one way or another.
Sielun Veljet - Kansan parissa (1-4)
Archival live recordings of sets recorded around 1989-1991. The first one is a typical Sielun Veljet set, the second one filled with Tuomari Nurmio covers, the third one is material from Softwood Music Under Slow Pillars, and the fourth one is a mix of subtle experimentation, new tracks, and deep cuts. Quite a comprehensive collection of live music. However, only few tracks are really worth keeping, including the electrifying high-tempo performance of 'Lammassusi' and the prototypical version of Alanko's 'Don Quiote'.
Ismo Alanko Teholla - Onnellisuus
The simplicity of the previous album is gone, replaced by a polished and highly produced pop sound. The DIY duo sound gives way to a more layered style, where synths, samples, and doubled vocals are added to the band's sound. Acoustic instruments are largely replaced by electric guitars and synths, turning the folksy garage band sound to a sleak and radio-friendly beast. If the fact that I just phrased the same exact thing in three ways didn't clue you in yet, I'm not particularly fond of this change of direction. However, I've seen this ridiculously often called the best Ismo Alanko album since the 90s, so it does appeal to the masses.
If you like 2010s pop and are looking for a decent gateway to Alanko's music, this could be the album to start with. It's accessible.
Hassisen Kone - 20 vuotta myöhemmin
Hassisen Kone had a reunion in 2000. They played a show that was both filmed and recorded. It's an interesting document of musicians playing music they wrote 20 years earlier. However, it ultimately sounds a bit tired compared to both the tight playing on their studio recordings and the energy levels on their 80s live recordings.
Ismo Alanko - Maailmanlopun sushibaari
Remember when I said that most pick between Kun Suomi putos puusta and Taiteilijaelämää as Alanko's magnum opus? Well, this is that one for me. I'm not saying that to imply that it would be his best album, but it's the album where he finally brings his disparate influences together in a coherent but eclectic way. If Kun Suomi putos puusta is where Alanko's artistic voice is at its purest, this is where it is at its maturest and most representative of the multi-faceted artist he has become during his career.
More or less incidentally, this is also Alanko's midlife crisis album. It's not entirely thematic -- who even knows what 'Kuusilmä' is about? -- but it does touch upon themes like growing old, dying, passing the torch, losing one's touch, and liking the colour grey. It's not quite on the nose, but you don't exactly have to dissect the lyrics to find those undercurrents.
So what does the album sound like? It's lighter than you'd imagine based on the central themes. There's rock, funk, subtle latin feel, a capella, pop, traditional folk, and even an ambitious rock opera about what sounds like a zombie apocalypse. It's fairly eclectic, making it a nice first solo album to release in nearly two decades.
Ismo Alanko - 33 1/3: Kolmannesvuosisata taiteilijaelämää
This is the Ismo Alanko live album I recommend people to start with. Are these performances as exciting as their studio versions? No. But I'd argue that they don't have to be. The main strength this recording has is its uniformity. The songs are played in a generic rock band style, but it doesn't change the fact that the setlist is good and diverse. There's no compilation that would dive this deep in such a digestible manner. Essentially, this is the middle-of-the-road pick that gives an excellent cursory look into a prolific artist's entire body of work (up until 2013).
Ismo Alanko - Ismo Kullervo Alanko
Considering how introspective and self-reflective the previous album is, it's surprising that Alanko decided to name this one after himself. It works though. The songs are produced sparser and airier than on any other Ismo Alanko album, making the music feel intimate and almost confessional. It feels like you're sitting in the same room with him, as he opens up to you. Amazingly produced album.
Ismo Alanko - Pannaanko pakasteet pieneen pussiin?
To be frank, I don't think this EP is an essential release. It's noteworthy for the modern hobo blues feel it has, and for having one of the very few covers Alanko has recorded so far, but none of these songs have an iconic feel to them. The best I can say about it is that none of the songs are bad, but neither are they memorable.
Ismo Alanko - Yksin Vanhalla
I wish more band-focused artists performed live alone every now and then. An arrangement stripped down to just vocals and an instrument (in Alanko's case, usually acoustic guitar, piano, or cello) turns every song into something entirely different. However, the lyrics grow in significance as instruments are dropped, so your mileage may vary with this one. I still enjoy it though.
Pohjonen Alanko - Northern Lowland
Alanko collaborates with Kimmo Pohjonen and Tuomas Norvio to bring us an electronic neon-shamanic album. Primal chants and vocalisations blending together with beats ranging from harsh to chill and breakbeat-y. It's a fascinating EP, even if highly gimmicky and lacking a sense of direction. Besides, this stuff will always be better live than on a studio recording.
Ismo Alanko - Minä halusin olla niin kuin Beethoven
And finally, the latest Ismo Alanko album, where he takes yet another left turn. This one was mainly recorded by Alanko alone in a studio, but eventually a drummer and a keyboardist were brought in to round up the sound. And what a sound it is! Youthful indie rock with a production that's stuck somewhere between the 00s and the 80s. If it were not for 58-year-old Alanko's vocals and eccentric riffing, I could very well believe this to be a debut album by ambitious 20-somethings.
Summary
Since Alanko's full albums are not readily available on many countries (especially the US), I'll provide a summary that's somewhere between a longish TL;DR, a series of recommendations, and a quick-glance overview of his career.
Album:: Täältä tullaan Venäjä (1980) [new wave punk] Representative track: Rock ehkäisyvälineitä vastaan (a bouncy high-tempo punk track)
Album: Rumat sävelet (1981) [new wave/post-punk] Representative track: Jurot nuorisojulkkikset (a gloomy post-punk-infused rock track)
Album: Harsoinen teräs (1982) [new wave/progressive rock] Representative track: Kupla kimaltaa (a well-flowing new wave track with a progressive song structure)
Album: Sielun Veljet (1983) [punk/post-punk] Representative track: Pieni pää (a noisy punk track with groovy tribal drumming and metallic guitar playing)
Album: Lapset (1983) [punk/post-punk] Representative track: Elintaso (an angular punk track)
Album: Hei soturit (1984) [post-punk/alternative rock] Representative track: Tää on tää (a straightforward punk track with a catchy hook)
Album: L'amourha (1985) [post-punk/hard rock] Representative track: Peltirumpu (a hard-hitting rock song with dissonant guitars)
Album: Kuka teki huorin (1986) [post-punk/funk rock] Representative track: Kristallilapsia (a funk rock track with screechy guitars and an unfunky bassline)
Album: Suomi - Finland (1988) [post-punk/psychedelic rock] Representative track: Totuus vai tequila (a ferocious folk punk track)
Album: Softwood Music Under Slow Pillars (1989) [psychedelic rock/flamenco] Representative track: Life is a Cobra (a psychedelic track combining flamenco rhythms and Indian string sections)
Album: Kun Suomi putos puusta (1990) [singesongwriter] Representative track: Kun Suomi putos puusta (a gentle organ-led track with subtle folk influence and field recordings)
Album: Jäätyneitä lauluja (1993) [electronic rock] Representative track: Pornografiaa (a slightly industrial-tinged electronic rock track)
Album: Taiteilijaelämää (1995) [art rock] Representative track: Nuorena syntynyt (a 90s sounding rock track with a freeform looseness to it)
Album: I-r-t-i (1996) [alternative rock] Representative track: Kriisistä kriisiin (a rock track with a steady dance pulse on the actual rock sections)
Album: Pulu (1998) [folk rock/art rock] Representative track: Rakkaus on ruma sana (a track with pseudo-shamanistic verses and catchy choruses)
Album: Sisäinen solarium (2000) (art pop/folk rock) Representative track: Kirskainen hyvätyinen (a largely electronic and pulsing track that feels one part a strange rock experiment and one part a traditional Finnish folk song)
Album: Hallanvaara (2002) (art pop/symphonic rock) Representative track: Paratiisin puu (a smooth pop track with significant classical influence)
Album: Minä ja pojat (2004) [alternative rock] Representative track: Joensuu (a straightforward and fuzzy rock song)
Album: Ruuhkainen taivas (2006) [alternative rock) Representative track: Paskiainen (a rock track alternating between manic psychobilly and catchy radio rock)
Album: Blanco spirituals (2008) [minimalistic art pop] Representative track: Päästänkö irti (an acoustic rock track with an interesting chord sequence)
Album: Onnellisuus (2010) [art pop] Representative track: Onnellisuus (a danceable and atmospheric pop track)
Album: Maailmanlopun sushibaari (2013) [alternative rock] Representative track: Vanha nuori (an accessible pop track with a funky brass section and theatrical choruses)
Album: Ismo Kullervo Alanko (2015) [art pop/singesongwriter] Representative track: Lintuperspektiivi (a melancholic and sparsely produced track with airy ambience)
Album: Northern Lowland (2018) [glitch hop-y tribal electronic music] Representative track: Northern Lowland (a track with primal chanting and glitchy beats)
Album: Minä halusin olla niin kuin Beethoven (2019) [80s flavour indie rock] Representative track: Transsioletettu tanssi (a funky rock track with a somewhat generic 2000s rock chorus)
Discussion
What is your opinion on Ismo Alanko? I personally enjoy how prolific and eclectic he has been, and I find it a shame that most of his work has never left Finland. I can especially imagine punk fans easily getting into his 80s work.
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2020.09.18 19:54 Brother_Moloch_969 List of Academic Resources for Pre-1800's Magic & Sorcery (Books, Websites, Blogs & Etc.)

Cross-posted from Magick.
Greetings. Several years ago, I along with some friends (Aaron Leitch, Jake Stratton-Kent, Frater Rufus Opus, and many others) contributed to a list we thought would be a great resource for studying Magic & Sorcery with academic elements listed prior to the 1800's new age movement. Here you will find a lot of useful information and realize this list is NOT complete because since the time we created this list, more academic material has emerged on the market. Also realize these books are not often found free on the Net in pdf form so you will have to do like the rest of us had to do which is purchase them - if you want them. I got many of these books in used condition from Amazon, AbeBooks, Half-Price Books, and so forth. Getting these materials & studying them will seriously up your magical game. Enjoy!
8o) Br Moloch 9.6.9.
Books:
  1. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation: Including the Demotic Spells: Texts (Volume 1)” by Hans Dieter Betz - This is a collection of magical spells and formulas, hymns, and rituals from Greco-Roman Egypt, dating from the second century B.C. to the fifth century A.D. A must read.
  2. Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World” edited by John G. Gager - In the ancient Greco-Roman world, it was common practice to curse or bind an enemy or rival by writing an incantation on a tablet and dedicating it to a god or spirit. These curses or binding spells, commonly called defixiones were intended to bring other people under the power and control of those who commissioned them
  3. Magika Hiera: Ancient Greek Magic and Religion” edited by Christopher A. Faraone & Dirk Obbink - This collection challenges the tendency among scholars of ancient Greece to see magical and religious ritual as mutually exclusive and to ignore "magical" practices in Greek religion. The contributors survey specific bodies of archaeological, epigraphical, and papyrological evidence for magical practices in the Greek world, and, in each case, determine whether the traditional dichotomy between magic and religion helps in any way to conceptualize the objective features of the evidence examined.
  4. Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Collection of Ancient Texts” by Georg Luck - Magic, miracles, daemonology, divination, astrology, and alchemy were the arcana mundi, the "secrets of the universe," of the ancient Greeks and Romans. In this path-breaking collection of Greek and Roman writings on magic and the occult, Georg Luck provides a comprehensive sourcebook and introduction to magic as it was practiced by witches and sorcerers, magi and astrologers, in the Greek and Roman worlds.
  5. Greek and Roman Necromancy” by Daniel Ogden - In classical antiquity, there was much interest in necromancy--the consultation of the dead for divination. People could seek knowledge from the dead by sleeping on tombs, visiting oracles, and attempting to reanimate corpses and skulls. Ranging over many of the lands in which Greek and Roman civilizations flourished, including Egypt, from the Greek archaic period through the late Roman empire, this book is the first comprehensive survey of the subject ever published in any language.
  6. Forbidden Rites: A Necromancer's Manual of the Fifteenth Century” by Richard Kieckhefer - Like many medieval texts for the use of magicians, this handbook is a miscellany rather than a systematic treatise. It is exceptional, however, in the scope and variety of its contents—prayers and conjurations, rituals of sympathetic magic, procedures involving astral magic, a catalogue of spirits, lengthy ceremonies for consecrating a book of magic, and other materials.
  7. Ritual Magic” by Elizabeth M. Butler - In this classic book (first published in 1949), Butler explores ritual magic using a wide range of texts from the pre-Christian rites of the Akkadians and Chaldeans to the Solomonic Clavicles of medieval Europe. Throughout, there is extensive quotation from the documents themselves, providing the reader with an authentic sense of the richness and power of these texts.
  8. Conjuring Spirits: Texts and Traditions of Medieval Ritual Magic” edited by Claire Fanger - Included are chapters by Richard Kieckhefer and Robert Mathiesen on the Sworn Book of Honorius, Michael Camille on the Ars Notoria, John B. Friedman on the Secretum Philosophorum, Nicholas Watson on the McMaster text, and Elizabeth Wade on Lullian divination. The work also includes Juris Lidaka's edition of the Liber de Angelis, and an overview of late medieval English ritual manuscripts by Frank Klaassen.
  9. The Fortunes of Faust” by Elizabeth M. Butler - Butler follows the magic tradition of the Magus—the priest-king—and its reformulation in the Christian world. In the process, the Magus was transformed into a wicked sorcerer who comes to a bad end in this world and a worse one hereafter. This conception, which gained ground in the Middle Ages, received its most categorical statement in the Faust legend.
  10. The Goetia of Dr. Rudd” by David Rankine & Stephen Skinner - The Goetia of Dr. Rudd explains how the 72 angels of the Shemhamphorash are used to evoke and safely bind demons—material that has not been made available in any previous edition. This rare volume contains a transcription of a hitherto unpublished manuscript of the Lemegeton and includes illustrations drawn from rare manuscripts held in the British Library.
  11. The Complete Magician’s Tables” by Stephen Skinner - The sources of this remarkable compilation range from classic grimoires such as the Sworn Book to modern theories of prime numbers and atomic weights. Data from Peter de Abano, Abbott Trithemium, Albertus Magnus, Cornelius Agrippa, and other prominent scholars is referenced here, in addition to hidden gems found in unpublished medieval grimoires and Kabbalistic works.
  12. The Keys to the Gateway of Magic: Summoning the Solomonic Archangels and Demon Princes” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - This classic text of the Nine Great Keys details the invocation of the Archangels, the full hierarchy of spiritual beings (including Olympic Spirits and Elementals) and the evocation of the four Demon Princes
  13. Three Books of Occult Philosophy” by Henry Cornelius Agrippa & edited by Donald Tyson - How magicians collect virtues from the three-fold World, is declared in these three books. Seeing there is a three-fold World, Elementary, Celestial, and Intellectual, and every inferior is governed by its superior. Indispensable.
  14. The Complete Picatrix: The Occult Classic Of Astrological Magic Liber Atratus” translated by John Michael Greer & Christopher Warnock - The Picatrix is the most famous grimoire of astrological magic and one of the most important works of medieval and Renaissance magic. With all four books of the Latin Picatrix complete in one volume, the Picatrix is an encyclopedic work with over 300 pages of Hermetic magical philosophy, ritual, talismanic and natural magic.
  15. Secrets of the Magical Grimoires Revealed” by Aaron Leitch - The magickal methods and esoteric knowledge of medieval Europe (476 to 1453 C.E.) form the ancestral backbone of modern ceremonial magick. To understand medieval magick, it’s necessary to know the primary repositories of this knowledge - the grimoires of spells, incantations, and ritual instructions for working with angels and conjuring spirits. And to understand the grimoires, you must delve into the life and times of the magicians who wrote them.
  16. The True Grimoire” by Jake Kent-Stratton - The True Grimoire is a major contribution to the practice and study of Goetic magic. The neglected Grimorium Verum has been restored to it's rightful place as a potent and coherent system of Goetic magic. Jake Stratton-Kent has reconstructed a working version from the corrupted Italian and French versions of this important grimoire.
  17. Geosophia: The Argo of Magic” by Jake Stratton-Kent - Geosophia traces the development of magic from the Greeks to the grimoires, laying bare the chthonic roots of goetic ritual. By exposing the necromantic origins of much of modern magic we are able to reconnect with the source of our ritual tradition. There is a continuity of practice in the West which encompasses the pre-Olympian cults of Dionysus and Cybele, is found in the Greek Magical Papyri and Picatrix and flows into the grimoires.
  18. "Ancient Christian Magic: Coptic Texts of Ritual Power" by Marvin W. Meyer & Richard Smith - This provocative collection of rites, spells, amulets, curses, and recipes of the early Coptic Christians documents Christianity as a living folk religion resembling other popular belief systems - something quite different from what theological and doctrinal traditions have led us to believe.
  19. Invoking Angels: Theurgic Ideas and Practices, Thirteenth to Sixteenth Centuries” edited by Claire Fanger - Bring0s together a tightly themed collection of essays on late medieval and early modern texts concerned with the role of angels in the cosmos, focusing on angelic rituals and spiritual cosmologies. Collectively, these essays tie medieval angel magic texts more clearly to medieval religion and to the better-known author-magicians of the early modern period.
  20. The Testament of Cyprian the Mage” by Jake Stratton-Kent - An ambitious and far-seeing work, addressing two ends of the magical spectrum: the Testament of Solomon and one version of the Iberian Book of Saint Cyprian. In doing so, key aspects of magical practice are revealed. This work draws upon these texts to create a clear understanding of the practice of grimoire magic, not as a discrete or degenerate subset of ceremonial magic, but one which is integrated with folk magic and witchcraft.
  21. Veritable Key of Solomon” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - Based on one of the best-known grimoires of the Western world, The Veritable Key of Solomon presents all aspects of this revered magical system in one impressive source.
  22. The Magical Treatise of Solomon, or Hygromanteia” by Ioannis Marathakis - The true source of the Key of Solomon, it is arguably the most significant magical text in the world. For the first time ever, this extraordinary work has been translated from the original Greek into English.
  23. Magic, Witchcraft and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman World: A Sourcebook” by Daniel Ogden - Contains three hundred texts in new translations, along with brief but explicit commentaries. Alongside descriptions of sorcerers, witches, and ghosts in the works of ancient writers, it reproduces curse tablets, spells from ancient magical recipe books, and inscriptions from magical amulets.
  24. Ancient Jewish Magic: A History” by Gideon Bohak - Gives a pioneering account of the broad history of ancient Jewish magic, from the Second Temple to the rabbinic period. It is based both on ancient magicians' own compositions and products in Aramaic, Hebrew and Greek, and on the descriptions and prescriptions of non-magicians, to reconstruct a historical picture that is as balanced and nuanced as possible.
  25. John Dee's Natural Philosophy: Between Science and Religion” by Nicholas Clulee - Thoroughly examining Dee’s natural philosophy, this book provides a balanced evaluation of his place, and the role of the occult, in sixteenth-century intellectual history. It brings together insights from a study of Dee’s writings, the available biographical material, and his sources as reflected in his extensive library and, more importantly, numerous surviving annotated volumes from it.
  26. Grimoires: A History of Magic Books” by Owen Davies - Put simply, grimoires are books of spells that were first recorded in the Ancient Middle East and which have developed and spread across much of the Western Hemisphere and beyond over the ensuing millennia. At their most benign, they contain charms and remedies for natural and supernatural ailments and advice on contacting spirits to help find treasures and protect from evil. But at their most sinister they provide instructions on how to manipulate people for corrupt purposes and, worst of all, to call up and make a pact with the Devil. Both types have proven remarkably resilient and adaptable and retain much of their relevance and fascination to this day.
  27. The Language of Demons and Angels: Cornelius Agrippa's Occult Philosophy” by Christopher I. Lehrich - The analysis walks the reader through the text of De Occulta Philosophia, Agrippa's 1533 masterpiece, explicating the often hidden structure and argument of the work.
  28. Thrice-Greatest Hermes; Studies in Hellenistic Theosophy and Gnosis” by G. R. S. Mead - Three Volumes bound into one. Volume contents are: Vol. 1. Prolegomena. -- Vol. 2. Sermons. -- Vol. 3. Excerpts and fragments.
  29. The Egyptian Hermes: A Historical Approach to the Late Pagan Mind” by Garth Fowden - Starting from the complex fusions and tensions that molded Graeco-Egyptian culture, and in particular Hermetism, during the centuries after Alexander, the author argues that the technical and philosophical Hermetica, apparently so different, might be seen as aspects of a single "way of Hermes".
  30. Restless Dead: Encounters between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Topics of focus include the origin of the goes (the ritual practitioner who made interaction with the dead his specialty), the threat to the living presented by the ghosts of those who died dishonorably or prematurely, the development of Hecate into a mistress of ghosts and its connection to female rites of transition, and the complex nature of the Erinyes.
  31. Hekate Soteira: A Study of Hekate's Roles in the Chaldean Oracles and Related Literature” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Hekate is best known to classicists and historians of religion as the horrific patroness of witches. But from the Hellenistic age onward, some Greek and Roman philosophers and magicians portrayed her quite differently.
  32. Magic and Ritual in the Ancient World” edited by Paul Mirecki and Marvin Meyer.
  33. Marsilio Ficino: His Theology, His Philosophy, His Legacy” edited by V. Rees, Michael J. B. Allen & Valery Rees - This volume consists of 21 essays on Marsilio Ficino (1433-99), the great Florentine scholar, philosopher and priest who was the architect of Renaissance Platonism and whose long-lasting influence on philosophy, love and music theory, medicine and magic extended across Europe.
  34. Secrets of Nature: Astrology and Alchemy in Early Modern Europe” edited by William R. Newman & Anthony Grafton - Shows the many ways in which astrology and alchemy diverge as well as intersect. Overall, it shows how an appreciation of the role of the occult opens up new ways of understanding the past.
  35. Trithemius and Magical Theology: A Chapter in the Controversy over Occult Studies in Early Modern Europe” by Noel L. Brann - This is a very useful, exciting and informative text for those interested in the philosophy and theology behind Renaissance Magic. Mentor to Agrippa, pioneer of cryptography, Trithemius is one of the most important (and well-placed in Church history) yet difficult to understand of the great Renaissance writers on magic, and this book provides a detailed but readable introduction to his views on the subject.
  36. John Dee's Conversations with Angels” by Deborah E. Harkness - John Dee's angel conversations have been an enigmatic facet of Elizabethan England's most famous natural philosopher's life and work. Professor Harkness contextualizes Dee's angel conversations within the natural philosophical, religious and social contexts of his time. She argues that they represent a continuing development of John Dee's earlier concerns and interests. These conversations include discussions of the natural world, the practice of natural philosophy, and the apocalypse.
  37. John Dee's Occultism: Magical Exaltation Through Powerful Signs” by Gyorgy E. Szonyi - Presents an analysis of Renaissance occultism and its place in the chronology of European cultural history. Culling examples of "magical thinking" from classical, medieval, and Renaissance philosophers, Szonyi revisits the body of Dee's own scientific and spiritual writings as reflective sources of traditional mysticism.
  38. The Arch Conjuror of England: John Dee” by Glyn Parry - Explores Dee’s vast array of political, magical, and scientific writings and finds that they cast significant new light on policy struggles in the Elizabethan court, conservative attacks on magic, and Europe's religious wars. John Dee was more than just a fringe magus, Parry shows Dee was a major figure of the Reformation and Renaissance.
  39. The Eternal Hermes: From Greek God to Alchemical Magus” by Antoine Favre - Drawing upon rare books and manuscripts, this highly illustrated work explores the question of where Hermes Trismegistus came from how he came to be a patron of the esoteric traditions and how the figure of Hermes has remained lively and inspiring to our own day.
  40. Glamorous Sorcery: Magic and Literacy in the High Middle Ages” by David Rollo - Demonstrates how closely interconnected certain types of vernacular and Latin writing were in this period. Uncovered through a series of illuminating, incisive, and often surprising close readings, these connections give us a new, more complex appraisal of the relationship between literacy, social status, and political power in a time and place in which various languages competed for cultural sovereignty-at a critical juncture in the cultural history of the West.
  41. Unlocked Books: Manuscripts of Learned Magic in the Medieval Libraries of Central Europe” by Benedek Láng - During the Middle Ages, the Western world translated the incredible Arabic scientific corpus and imported it into Western culture: Arabic philosophy, optics, and physics, as well as alchemy, astrology, and talismanic magic. The line between the scientific and the magical was blurred. According to popular lore, magicians of the Middle Ages were trained in the art of magic in “magician schools” located in various metropolitan areas, such as Naples, Athens, and Toledo.
  42. The History of Magic and Experimental Science” by Lynn Thorndike.
  43. The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practice” by Robert K. Ritner - This study represents the first critical examination of "magical techniques," revealing their widespread appearance and pivotal significance for all Egyptian "religious" practices from the earliest periods through the Coptic era, influencing as well the Greco-Egyptian magical papyri.
  44. Eternal Egypt: Ancient Rituals for the Modern World” by Richard J. Reidy - The first comprehensive collection of important temple rituals performed throughout Egypt during the time of the pharaohs. The author presents seven key rites from official temple records and ancient esoteric texts for personal or group use.
  45. Arguing With Angels” by Egil Asprem - Examining this magical system from its Renaissance origins to present day occultism, Egil Asprem shows how the reception of Dee’s magic is replete with struggles to construct and negotiate authoritative interpretational frameworks for doing magic. Arguing with Angels offers a novel, nuanced approach to questions about how ritual magic has survived the advent of modernity and demonstrates the ways in which modern culture has recreated magical discourse.
  46. Dictionary of Gnosis & Western Esotericism” by Wouter J. Hanegraaff - This is the first comprehensive reference work to cover the entire domain of “Gnosis and Western Esotericism” from the period of Late Antiquity to the present. Containing around 400 articles by over 180 international specialists, it provides critical overviews discussing the nature and historical development of all its important currents and manifestations, from Gnosticism and Hermetism to Astrology, Alchemy and Magic, from the Hermetic Tradition of the Renaissance to Rosicrucianism and Christian Theosophy, and from Freemasonry and Illuminism to 19th-century Occultism and the contemporary New Age movement.
  47. The Alchemy of Light: Geometry and Optics in Late Renaissance Alchemical Illustration” by Ursula Szulakowska - This study concerns the late Renaissance metaphysics of light in its adoption to a Paracelsian alchemical context by John Dee, Heinrich Khunrath, Michael Maier and Robert Fludd. he volume includes 50 illustrations from alchemical treatises of the period, the emphasis being placed on Khunrath's "Amphiteatrum Sapientiea Aeternae" (1595-1609). The study investigates these images using analytical tools drawn from semiotics, structuralism and post-structuralism.
  48. Theurgy and the Soul: The Neoplatonism of Iamblichus” by Gregory Shaw - A study of Iamblichus of Syria (ca. 240-325), whose teachings set the final form of pagan spirituality prior to the Christianization of the Roman Empire. Shaw focuses on the theory and practice of theurgy, the most controversial and significant aspect of Iamblichus's Platonism.
  49. Platonic Theology, Volume 1: Books I-IV” by Marsilio Ficino, edited by James Hankins - A visionary work and philosophical masterpiece of Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499), the Florentine scholar-philosopher-magus who was largely responsible for the Renaissance revival of Plato. A student of the Neoplatonic schools of Plotinus and Proclus, Ficino was committed to reconciling Platonism with Christianity, in the hope that such a reconciliation would initiate a spiritual revival and return of the golden age. This is one of the keys to understanding the art, thought, culture, and spirituality of the Renaissance.
  50. Giordano Bruno and Renaissance Science” by Hilary Gatti - This argument, associated with the work of Frances Yates, holds that early modern science was impregnated with and shaped by Hermetic and occult traditions, and has led scholars to view Bruno primarily as a magus.
  51. De Umbris Idearum” (The Collected Works of Giordano Bruno, Book 1)” by Giordano Bruno, edited by Scott Gosnell - To memorize anything, distribute vivid, emotionally stirring imagined images around a piece of familiar architecture. This is the method of loci, or memory palace method, first developed in classical antiquity.
  52. "Hermes: Guide of Souls" by Karl Kerenyi, translated by Murray Stein - Presents an authoritative study of the great god Hermes whom the Greeks revered as the Guides of Souls as well as the complex role of Hermes in classical mythology.
  53. Ritual Texts for the Afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets” by Fritz Graf and Sarah Illes Johnston - Fascinating texts written on small gold tablets that were deposited in graves provide a unique source of information about what some Greeks and Romans believed regarding the fate that awaited them after death, and how they could influence it. These texts, dating from the late fifth century BCE to the second century CE, have been part of the scholarly debate on ancient afterlife beliefs since the end of the nineteenth century. The tablets belonged to those who had been initiated into the mysteries of Dionysus Bacchius and relied heavily upon myths narrated in poems ascribed to the mythical singer Orpheus.
  54. Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World” by Matthew W. Dickie - This study is the first to assemble the evidence for the existence of sorcerors in the ancient world; it also addresses the question of their identity and social origins. The resulting investigation takes us to the underside of Greek and Roman society, into a world of wandering holy men and women, conjurors and wonder-workers, and into the lives of prostitutes, procuresses, charioteers and theatrical performers.

Further Resources
PDF’s:
Seeing The Word: John Dee and Renaissance Occultism” by Hakan Hakannson http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Seeing+the+Word%3A+John+Dee+and+Renaissance+Occultism.+.-a099012024

Miscellaneous Articles:
Khunrath by Peter Forshaw
http://uva.academia.edu/PeterForshaw
Enoch Traditions by Andrei Orlov
http://www.marquette.edu/maqom/metatronyouth.html
Hermes, Proclus, and the Question of A Philosophy of Magic in the Renaissance by Copenhaver

Websites & Blogs:
Brian P. Copenhaver
https://philosophy.ucla.edu/person/brian-copenhave
Claire Fanger:
http://rice.academia.edu/ClaireFanger
Wouter J. Hanegraaff: http://uva.academia.edu/WouterHanegraaff
The Ritman Library & The Embassy of the Free Mind
https://www.youtube.com/c/EmbassyoftheFreeMind/videos

Scholarly Journals:
Dionysius
https://www.dal.ca/faculty/arts/classics/journals/dionysius.html
Aries: Journal for the Study of Western Esotericism
https://brill.com/view/serial/ARBS?language=en
Copyright www.molochsorcery.com All Rights Reserved
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2020.09.18 19:44 Brother_Moloch_969 List of Academic Books, Websites, Blogs & More Resources for Pre-1800's Magic & Sorcery

Crossposted from Magick.
Greetings. Several years ago, I along with some friends (Aaron Leitch, Jake Stratton-Kent, Frater Rufus Opus, and many others) contributed to a list we thought would be a great resource for studying Magic & Sorcery with academic elements listed prior to the 1800's new age movement. Here you will find a lot of useful information and realize this list is NOT complete because since the time we created this list, more academic material has emerged on the market. Also realize these books are not often found free on the Net in pdf form so you will have to do like the rest of us had to do which is purchase them - if you want them. I got many of these books in used condition from Amazon, AbeBooks, Half-Price Books, and so forth. Getting these materials & studying them will seriously up your magical game. Enjoy!
8o) Br Moloch 9.6.9.
Books:
  1. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation: Including the Demotic Spells: Texts (Volume 1)” by Hans Dieter Betz - This is a collection of magical spells and formulas, hymns, and rituals from Greco-Roman Egypt, dating from the second century B.C. to the fifth century A.D. A must read.
  2. Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World” edited by John G. Gager - In the ancient Greco-Roman world, it was common practice to curse or bind an enemy or rival by writing an incantation on a tablet and dedicating it to a god or spirit. These curses or binding spells, commonly called defixiones were intended to bring other people under the power and control of those who commissioned them
  3. Magika Hiera: Ancient Greek Magic and Religion” edited by Christopher A. Faraone & Dirk Obbink - This collection challenges the tendency among scholars of ancient Greece to see magical and religious ritual as mutually exclusive and to ignore "magical" practices in Greek religion. The contributors survey specific bodies of archaeological, epigraphical, and papyrological evidence for magical practices in the Greek world, and, in each case, determine whether the traditional dichotomy between magic and religion helps in any way to conceptualize the objective features of the evidence examined.
  4. Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Collection of Ancient Texts” by Georg Luck - Magic, miracles, daemonology, divination, astrology, and alchemy were the arcana mundi, the "secrets of the universe," of the ancient Greeks and Romans. In this path-breaking collection of Greek and Roman writings on magic and the occult, Georg Luck provides a comprehensive sourcebook and introduction to magic as it was practiced by witches and sorcerers, magi and astrologers, in the Greek and Roman worlds.
  5. Greek and Roman Necromancy” by Daniel Ogden - In classical antiquity, there was much interest in necromancy--the consultation of the dead for divination. People could seek knowledge from the dead by sleeping on tombs, visiting oracles, and attempting to reanimate corpses and skulls. Ranging over many of the lands in which Greek and Roman civilizations flourished, including Egypt, from the Greek archaic period through the late Roman empire, this book is the first comprehensive survey of the subject ever published in any language.
  6. Forbidden Rites: A Necromancer's Manual of the Fifteenth Century” by Richard Kieckhefer - Like many medieval texts for the use of magicians, this handbook is a miscellany rather than a systematic treatise. It is exceptional, however, in the scope and variety of its contents—prayers and conjurations, rituals of sympathetic magic, procedures involving astral magic, a catalogue of spirits, lengthy ceremonies for consecrating a book of magic, and other materials.
  7. Ritual Magic” by Elizabeth M. Butler - In this classic book (first published in 1949), Butler explores ritual magic using a wide range of texts from the pre-Christian rites of the Akkadians and Chaldeans to the Solomonic Clavicles of medieval Europe. Throughout, there is extensive quotation from the documents themselves, providing the reader with an authentic sense of the richness and power of these texts.
  8. Conjuring Spirits: Texts and Traditions of Medieval Ritual Magic” edited by Claire Fanger - Included are chapters by Richard Kieckhefer and Robert Mathiesen on the Sworn Book of Honorius, Michael Camille on the Ars Notoria, John B. Friedman on the Secretum Philosophorum, Nicholas Watson on the McMaster text, and Elizabeth Wade on Lullian divination. The work also includes Juris Lidaka's edition of the Liber de Angelis, and an overview of late medieval English ritual manuscripts by Frank Klaassen.
  9. The Fortunes of Faust” by Elizabeth M. Butler - Butler follows the magic tradition of the Magus—the priest-king—and its reformulation in the Christian world. In the process, the Magus was transformed into a wicked sorcerer who comes to a bad end in this world and a worse one hereafter. This conception, which gained ground in the Middle Ages, received its most categorical statement in the Faust legend.
  10. The Goetia of Dr. Rudd” by David Rankine & Stephen Skinner - The Goetia of Dr. Rudd explains how the 72 angels of the Shemhamphorash are used to evoke and safely bind demons—material that has not been made available in any previous edition. This rare volume contains a transcription of a hitherto unpublished manuscript of the Lemegeton and includes illustrations drawn from rare manuscripts held in the British Library.
  11. The Complete Magician’s Tables” by Stephen Skinner - The sources of this remarkable compilation range from classic grimoires such as the Sworn Book to modern theories of prime numbers and atomic weights. Data from Peter de Abano, Abbott Trithemium, Albertus Magnus, Cornelius Agrippa, and other prominent scholars is referenced here, in addition to hidden gems found in unpublished medieval grimoires and Kabbalistic works.
  12. The Keys to the Gateway of Magic: Summoning the Solomonic Archangels and Demon Princes” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - This classic text of the Nine Great Keys details the invocation of the Archangels, the full hierarchy of spiritual beings (including Olympic Spirits and Elementals) and the evocation of the four Demon Princes
  13. Three Books of Occult Philosophy” by Henry Cornelius Agrippa & edited by Donald Tyson - How magicians collect virtues from the three-fold World, is declared in these three books. Seeing there is a three-fold World, Elementary, Celestial, and Intellectual, and every inferior is governed by its superior. Indispensable.
  14. The Complete Picatrix: The Occult Classic Of Astrological Magic Liber Atratus” translated by John Michael Greer & Christopher Warnock - The Picatrix is the most famous grimoire of astrological magic and one of the most important works of medieval and Renaissance magic. With all four books of the Latin Picatrix complete in one volume, the Picatrix is an encyclopedic work with over 300 pages of Hermetic magical philosophy, ritual, talismanic and natural magic.
  15. Secrets of the Magical Grimoires Revealed” by Aaron Leitch - The magickal methods and esoteric knowledge of medieval Europe (476 to 1453 C.E.) form the ancestral backbone of modern ceremonial magick. To understand medieval magick, it’s necessary to know the primary repositories of this knowledge - the grimoires of spells, incantations, and ritual instructions for working with angels and conjuring spirits. And to understand the grimoires, you must delve into the life and times of the magicians who wrote them.
  16. The True Grimoire” by Jake Kent-Stratton - The True Grimoire is a major contribution to the practice and study of Goetic magic. The neglected Grimorium Verum has been restored to it's rightful place as a potent and coherent system of Goetic magic. Jake Stratton-Kent has reconstructed a working version from the corrupted Italian and French versions of this important grimoire.
  17. Geosophia: The Argo of Magic” by Jake Stratton-Kent - Geosophia traces the development of magic from the Greeks to the grimoires, laying bare the chthonic roots of goetic ritual. By exposing the necromantic origins of much of modern magic we are able to reconnect with the source of our ritual tradition. There is a continuity of practice in the West which encompasses the pre-Olympian cults of Dionysus and Cybele, is found in the Greek Magical Papyri and Picatrix and flows into the grimoires.
  18. "Ancient Christian Magic: Coptic Texts of Ritual Power" by Marvin W. Meyer & Richard Smith - This provocative collection of rites, spells, amulets, curses, and recipes of the early Coptic Christians documents Christianity as a living folk religion resembling other popular belief systems - something quite different from what theological and doctrinal traditions have led us to believe.
  19. Invoking Angels: Theurgic Ideas and Practices, Thirteenth to Sixteenth Centuries” edited by Claire Fanger - Bring0s together a tightly themed collection of essays on late medieval and early modern texts concerned with the role of angels in the cosmos, focusing on angelic rituals and spiritual cosmologies. Collectively, these essays tie medieval angel magic texts more clearly to medieval religion and to the better-known author-magicians of the early modern period.
  20. The Testament of Cyprian the Mage” by Jake Stratton-Kent - An ambitious and far-seeing work, addressing two ends of the magical spectrum: the Testament of Solomon and one version of the Iberian Book of Saint Cyprian. In doing so, key aspects of magical practice are revealed. This work draws upon these texts to create a clear understanding of the practice of grimoire magic, not as a discrete or degenerate subset of ceremonial magic, but one which is integrated with folk magic and witchcraft.
  21. Veritable Key of Solomon” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - Based on one of the best-known grimoires of the Western world, The Veritable Key of Solomon presents all aspects of this revered magical system in one impressive source.
  22. The Magical Treatise of Solomon, or Hygromanteia” by Ioannis Marathakis - The true source of the Key of Solomon, it is arguably the most significant magical text in the world. For the first time ever, this extraordinary work has been translated from the original Greek into English.
  23. Magic, Witchcraft and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman World: A Sourcebook” by Daniel Ogden - Contains three hundred texts in new translations, along with brief but explicit commentaries. Alongside descriptions of sorcerers, witches, and ghosts in the works of ancient writers, it reproduces curse tablets, spells from ancient magical recipe books, and inscriptions from magical amulets.
  24. Ancient Jewish Magic: A History” by Gideon Bohak - Gives a pioneering account of the broad history of ancient Jewish magic, from the Second Temple to the rabbinic period. It is based both on ancient magicians' own compositions and products in Aramaic, Hebrew and Greek, and on the descriptions and prescriptions of non-magicians, to reconstruct a historical picture that is as balanced and nuanced as possible.
  25. John Dee's Natural Philosophy: Between Science and Religion” by Nicholas Clulee - Thoroughly examining Dee’s natural philosophy, this book provides a balanced evaluation of his place, and the role of the occult, in sixteenth-century intellectual history. It brings together insights from a study of Dee’s writings, the available biographical material, and his sources as reflected in his extensive library and, more importantly, numerous surviving annotated volumes from it.
  26. Grimoires: A History of Magic Books” by Owen Davies - Put simply, grimoires are books of spells that were first recorded in the Ancient Middle East and which have developed and spread across much of the Western Hemisphere and beyond over the ensuing millennia. At their most benign, they contain charms and remedies for natural and supernatural ailments and advice on contacting spirits to help find treasures and protect from evil. But at their most sinister they provide instructions on how to manipulate people for corrupt purposes and, worst of all, to call up and make a pact with the Devil. Both types have proven remarkably resilient and adaptable and retain much of their relevance and fascination to this day.
  27. The Language of Demons and Angels: Cornelius Agrippa's Occult Philosophy” by Christopher I. Lehrich - The analysis walks the reader through the text of De Occulta Philosophia, Agrippa's 1533 masterpiece, explicating the often hidden structure and argument of the work.
  28. Thrice-Greatest Hermes; Studies in Hellenistic Theosophy and Gnosis” by G. R. S. Mead - Three Volumes bound into one. Volume contents are: Vol. 1. Prolegomena. -- Vol. 2. Sermons. -- Vol. 3. Excerpts and fragments.
  29. The Egyptian Hermes: A Historical Approach to the Late Pagan Mind” by Garth Fowden - Starting from the complex fusions and tensions that molded Graeco-Egyptian culture, and in particular Hermetism, during the centuries after Alexander, the author argues that the technical and philosophical Hermetica, apparently so different, might be seen as aspects of a single "way of Hermes".
  30. Restless Dead: Encounters between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Topics of focus include the origin of the goes (the ritual practitioner who made interaction with the dead his specialty), the threat to the living presented by the ghosts of those who died dishonorably or prematurely, the development of Hecate into a mistress of ghosts and its connection to female rites of transition, and the complex nature of the Erinyes.
  31. Hekate Soteira: A Study of Hekate's Roles in the Chaldean Oracles and Related Literature” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Hekate is best known to classicists and historians of religion as the horrific patroness of witches. But from the Hellenistic age onward, some Greek and Roman philosophers and magicians portrayed her quite differently.
  32. Magic and Ritual in the Ancient World” edited by Paul Mirecki and Marvin Meyer.
  33. Marsilio Ficino: His Theology, His Philosophy, His Legacy” edited by V. Rees, Michael J. B. Allen & Valery Rees - This volume consists of 21 essays on Marsilio Ficino (1433-99), the great Florentine scholar, philosopher and priest who was the architect of Renaissance Platonism and whose long-lasting influence on philosophy, love and music theory, medicine and magic extended across Europe.
  34. Secrets of Nature: Astrology and Alchemy in Early Modern Europe” edited by William R. Newman & Anthony Grafton - Shows the many ways in which astrology and alchemy diverge as well as intersect. Overall, it shows how an appreciation of the role of the occult opens up new ways of understanding the past.
  35. Trithemius and Magical Theology: A Chapter in the Controversy over Occult Studies in Early Modern Europe” by Noel L. Brann - This is a very useful, exciting and informative text for those interested in the philosophy and theology behind Renaissance Magic. Mentor to Agrippa, pioneer of cryptography, Trithemius is one of the most important (and well-placed in Church history) yet difficult to understand of the great Renaissance writers on magic, and this book provides a detailed but readable introduction to his views on the subject.
  36. John Dee's Conversations with Angels” by Deborah E. Harkness - John Dee's angel conversations have been an enigmatic facet of Elizabethan England's most famous natural philosopher's life and work. Professor Harkness contextualizes Dee's angel conversations within the natural philosophical, religious and social contexts of his time. She argues that they represent a continuing development of John Dee's earlier concerns and interests. These conversations include discussions of the natural world, the practice of natural philosophy, and the apocalypse.
  37. John Dee's Occultism: Magical Exaltation Through Powerful Signs” by Gyorgy E. Szonyi - Presents an analysis of Renaissance occultism and its place in the chronology of European cultural history. Culling examples of "magical thinking" from classical, medieval, and Renaissance philosophers, Szonyi revisits the body of Dee's own scientific and spiritual writings as reflective sources of traditional mysticism.
  38. The Arch Conjuror of England: John Dee” by Glyn Parry - Explores Dee’s vast array of political, magical, and scientific writings and finds that they cast significant new light on policy struggles in the Elizabethan court, conservative attacks on magic, and Europe's religious wars. John Dee was more than just a fringe magus, Parry shows Dee was a major figure of the Reformation and Renaissance.
  39. The Eternal Hermes: From Greek God to Alchemical Magus” by Antoine Favre - Drawing upon rare books and manuscripts, this highly illustrated work explores the question of where Hermes Trismegistus came from how he came to be a patron of the esoteric traditions and how the figure of Hermes has remained lively and inspiring to our own day.
  40. Glamorous Sorcery: Magic and Literacy in the High Middle Ages” by David Rollo - Demonstrates how closely interconnected certain types of vernacular and Latin writing were in this period. Uncovered through a series of illuminating, incisive, and often surprising close readings, these connections give us a new, more complex appraisal of the relationship between literacy, social status, and political power in a time and place in which various languages competed for cultural sovereignty-at a critical juncture in the cultural history of the West.
  41. Unlocked Books: Manuscripts of Learned Magic in the Medieval Libraries of Central Europe” by Benedek Láng - During the Middle Ages, the Western world translated the incredible Arabic scientific corpus and imported it into Western culture: Arabic philosophy, optics, and physics, as well as alchemy, astrology, and talismanic magic. The line between the scientific and the magical was blurred. According to popular lore, magicians of the Middle Ages were trained in the art of magic in “magician schools” located in various metropolitan areas, such as Naples, Athens, and Toledo.
  42. The History of Magic and Experimental Science” by Lynn Thorndike.
  43. The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practice” by Robert K. Ritner - This study represents the first critical examination of "magical techniques," revealing their widespread appearance and pivotal significance for all Egyptian "religious" practices from the earliest periods through the Coptic era, influencing as well the Greco-Egyptian magical papyri.
  44. Eternal Egypt: Ancient Rituals for the Modern World” by Richard J. Reidy - The first comprehensive collection of important temple rituals performed throughout Egypt during the time of the pharaohs. The author presents seven key rites from official temple records and ancient esoteric texts for personal or group use.
  45. Arguing With Angels” by Egil Asprem - Examining this magical system from its Renaissance origins to present day occultism, Egil Asprem shows how the reception of Dee’s magic is replete with struggles to construct and negotiate authoritative interpretational frameworks for doing magic. Arguing with Angels offers a novel, nuanced approach to questions about how ritual magic has survived the advent of modernity and demonstrates the ways in which modern culture has recreated magical discourse.
  46. Dictionary of Gnosis & Western Esotericism” by Wouter J. Hanegraaff - This is the first comprehensive reference work to cover the entire domain of “Gnosis and Western Esotericism” from the period of Late Antiquity to the present. Containing around 400 articles by over 180 international specialists, it provides critical overviews discussing the nature and historical development of all its important currents and manifestations, from Gnosticism and Hermetism to Astrology, Alchemy and Magic, from the Hermetic Tradition of the Renaissance to Rosicrucianism and Christian Theosophy, and from Freemasonry and Illuminism to 19th-century Occultism and the contemporary New Age movement.
  47. The Alchemy of Light: Geometry and Optics in Late Renaissance Alchemical Illustration” by Ursula Szulakowska - This study concerns the late Renaissance metaphysics of light in its adoption to a Paracelsian alchemical context by John Dee, Heinrich Khunrath, Michael Maier and Robert Fludd. he volume includes 50 illustrations from alchemical treatises of the period, the emphasis being placed on Khunrath's "Amphiteatrum Sapientiea Aeternae" (1595-1609). The study investigates these images using analytical tools drawn from semiotics, structuralism and post-structuralism.
  48. Theurgy and the Soul: The Neoplatonism of Iamblichus” by Gregory Shaw - A study of Iamblichus of Syria (ca. 240-325), whose teachings set the final form of pagan spirituality prior to the Christianization of the Roman Empire. Shaw focuses on the theory and practice of theurgy, the most controversial and significant aspect of Iamblichus's Platonism.
  49. Platonic Theology, Volume 1: Books I-IV” by Marsilio Ficino, edited by James Hankins - A visionary work and philosophical masterpiece of Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499), the Florentine scholar-philosopher-magus who was largely responsible for the Renaissance revival of Plato. A student of the Neoplatonic schools of Plotinus and Proclus, Ficino was committed to reconciling Platonism with Christianity, in the hope that such a reconciliation would initiate a spiritual revival and return of the golden age. This is one of the keys to understanding the art, thought, culture, and spirituality of the Renaissance.
  50. Giordano Bruno and Renaissance Science” by Hilary Gatti - This argument, associated with the work of Frances Yates, holds that early modern science was impregnated with and shaped by Hermetic and occult traditions, and has led scholars to view Bruno primarily as a magus.
  51. De Umbris Idearum” (The Collected Works of Giordano Bruno, Book 1)” by Giordano Bruno, edited by Scott Gosnell - To memorize anything, distribute vivid, emotionally stirring imagined images around a piece of familiar architecture. This is the method of loci, or memory palace method, first developed in classical antiquity.
  52. "Hermes: Guide of Souls" by Karl Kerenyi, translated by Murray Stein - Presents an authoritative study of the great god Hermes whom the Greeks revered as the Guides of Souls as well as the complex role of Hermes in classical mythology.
  53. Ritual Texts for the Afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets” by Fritz Graf and Sarah Illes Johnston - Fascinating texts written on small gold tablets that were deposited in graves provide a unique source of information about what some Greeks and Romans believed regarding the fate that awaited them after death, and how they could influence it. These texts, dating from the late fifth century BCE to the second century CE, have been part of the scholarly debate on ancient afterlife beliefs since the end of the nineteenth century. The tablets belonged to those who had been initiated into the mysteries of Dionysus Bacchius and relied heavily upon myths narrated in poems ascribed to the mythical singer Orpheus.
  54. Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World” by Matthew W. Dickie - This study is the first to assemble the evidence for the existence of sorcerors in the ancient world; it also addresses the question of their identity and social origins. The resulting investigation takes us to the underside of Greek and Roman society, into a world of wandering holy men and women, conjurors and wonder-workers, and into the lives of prostitutes, procuresses, charioteers and theatrical performers.

Further Resources
PDF’s:
Seeing The Word: John Dee and Renaissance Occultism” by Hakan Hakannson http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Seeing+the+Word%3A+John+Dee+and+Renaissance+Occultism.+.-a099012024

Miscellaneous Articles:
Khunrath by Peter Forshaw
http://uva.academia.edu/PeterForshaw
Enoch Traditions by Andrei Orlov
http://www.marquette.edu/maqom/metatronyouth.html
Hermes, Proclus, and the Question of A Philosophy of Magic in the Renaissance by Copenhaver

Websites & Blogs:
Brian P. Copenhaver
https://philosophy.ucla.edu/person/brian-copenhave
Claire Fanger:
http://rice.academia.edu/ClaireFanger
Wouter J. Hanegraaff: http://uva.academia.edu/WouterHanegraaff
The Ritman Library & The Embassy of the Free Mind
https://www.youtube.com/c/EmbassyoftheFreeMind/videos

Scholarly Journals:
Dionysius
https://www.dal.ca/faculty/arts/classics/journals/dionysius.html
Aries: Journal for the Study of Western Esotericism
https://brill.com/view/serial/ARBS?language=en
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2020.09.18 19:33 Brother_Moloch_969 List of Academic Sources for Pre-1800's Magic & Sorcery Books, Websites, Blogs and etc.

Cross-posted from Magick.
Greetings. Several years ago, I along with some friends (Aaron Leitch, Jake Stratton-Kent, Frater Rufus Opus, and many others) contributed to a list we thought would be a great resource for studying Magic & Sorcery with academic elements listed prior to the 1800's new age movement. Here you will find a lot of useful information and realize this list is NOT complete because since the time we created this list, more academic material has emerged on the market. Also realize these books are not often found free on the Net in pdf form so you will have to do like the rest of us had to do which is purchase them - if you want them. I got many of these books in used condition from Amazon, AbeBooks, Half-Price Books, and so forth. Getting these materials & studying them will seriously up your magical game. Enjoy!
8o) Br Moloch 9.6.9.
Books:
  1. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation: Including the Demotic Spells: Texts (Volume 1)” by Hans Dieter Betz - This is a collection of magical spells and formulas, hymns, and rituals from Greco-Roman Egypt, dating from the second century B.C. to the fifth century A.D. A must read.
  2. Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World” edited by John G. Gager - In the ancient Greco-Roman world, it was common practice to curse or bind an enemy or rival by writing an incantation on a tablet and dedicating it to a god or spirit. These curses or binding spells, commonly called defixiones were intended to bring other people under the power and control of those who commissioned them
  3. Magika Hiera: Ancient Greek Magic and Religion” edited by Christopher A. Faraone & Dirk Obbink - This collection challenges the tendency among scholars of ancient Greece to see magical and religious ritual as mutually exclusive and to ignore "magical" practices in Greek religion. The contributors survey specific bodies of archaeological, epigraphical, and papyrological evidence for magical practices in the Greek world, and, in each case, determine whether the traditional dichotomy between magic and religion helps in any way to conceptualize the objective features of the evidence examined.
  4. Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Collection of Ancient Texts” by Georg Luck - Magic, miracles, daemonology, divination, astrology, and alchemy were the arcana mundi, the "secrets of the universe," of the ancient Greeks and Romans. In this path-breaking collection of Greek and Roman writings on magic and the occult, Georg Luck provides a comprehensive sourcebook and introduction to magic as it was practiced by witches and sorcerers, magi and astrologers, in the Greek and Roman worlds.
  5. Greek and Roman Necromancy” by Daniel Ogden - In classical antiquity, there was much interest in necromancy--the consultation of the dead for divination. People could seek knowledge from the dead by sleeping on tombs, visiting oracles, and attempting to reanimate corpses and skulls. Ranging over many of the lands in which Greek and Roman civilizations flourished, including Egypt, from the Greek archaic period through the late Roman empire, this book is the first comprehensive survey of the subject ever published in any language.
  6. Forbidden Rites: A Necromancer's Manual of the Fifteenth Century” by Richard Kieckhefer - Like many medieval texts for the use of magicians, this handbook is a miscellany rather than a systematic treatise. It is exceptional, however, in the scope and variety of its contents—prayers and conjurations, rituals of sympathetic magic, procedures involving astral magic, a catalogue of spirits, lengthy ceremonies for consecrating a book of magic, and other materials.
  7. Ritual Magic” by Elizabeth M. Butler - In this classic book (first published in 1949), Butler explores ritual magic using a wide range of texts from the pre-Christian rites of the Akkadians and Chaldeans to the Solomonic Clavicles of medieval Europe. Throughout, there is extensive quotation from the documents themselves, providing the reader with an authentic sense of the richness and power of these texts.
  8. Conjuring Spirits: Texts and Traditions of Medieval Ritual Magic” edited by Claire Fanger - Included are chapters by Richard Kieckhefer and Robert Mathiesen on the Sworn Book of Honorius, Michael Camille on the Ars Notoria, John B. Friedman on the Secretum Philosophorum, Nicholas Watson on the McMaster text, and Elizabeth Wade on Lullian divination. The work also includes Juris Lidaka's edition of the Liber de Angelis, and an overview of late medieval English ritual manuscripts by Frank Klaassen.
  9. The Fortunes of Faust” by Elizabeth M. Butler - Butler follows the magic tradition of the Magus—the priest-king—and its reformulation in the Christian world. In the process, the Magus was transformed into a wicked sorcerer who comes to a bad end in this world and a worse one hereafter. This conception, which gained ground in the Middle Ages, received its most categorical statement in the Faust legend.
  10. The Goetia of Dr. Rudd” by David Rankine & Stephen Skinner - The Goetia of Dr. Rudd explains how the 72 angels of the Shemhamphorash are used to evoke and safely bind demons—material that has not been made available in any previous edition. This rare volume contains a transcription of a hitherto unpublished manuscript of the Lemegeton and includes illustrations drawn from rare manuscripts held in the British Library.
  11. The Complete Magician’s Tables” by Stephen Skinner - The sources of this remarkable compilation range from classic grimoires such as the Sworn Book to modern theories of prime numbers and atomic weights. Data from Peter de Abano, Abbott Trithemium, Albertus Magnus, Cornelius Agrippa, and other prominent scholars is referenced here, in addition to hidden gems found in unpublished medieval grimoires and Kabbalistic works.
  12. The Keys to the Gateway of Magic: Summoning the Solomonic Archangels and Demon Princes” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - This classic text of the Nine Great Keys details the invocation of the Archangels, the full hierarchy of spiritual beings (including Olympic Spirits and Elementals) and the evocation of the four Demon Princes
  13. Three Books of Occult Philosophy” by Henry Cornelius Agrippa & edited by Donald Tyson - How magicians collect virtues from the three-fold World, is declared in these three books. Seeing there is a three-fold World, Elementary, Celestial, and Intellectual, and every inferior is governed by its superior. Indispensable.
  14. The Complete Picatrix: The Occult Classic Of Astrological Magic Liber Atratus” translated by John Michael Greer & Christopher Warnock - The Picatrix is the most famous grimoire of astrological magic and one of the most important works of medieval and Renaissance magic. With all four books of the Latin Picatrix complete in one volume, the Picatrix is an encyclopedic work with over 300 pages of Hermetic magical philosophy, ritual, talismanic and natural magic.
  15. Secrets of the Magical Grimoires Revealed” by Aaron Leitch - The magickal methods and esoteric knowledge of medieval Europe (476 to 1453 C.E.) form the ancestral backbone of modern ceremonial magick. To understand medieval magick, it’s necessary to know the primary repositories of this knowledge - the grimoires of spells, incantations, and ritual instructions for working with angels and conjuring spirits. And to understand the grimoires, you must delve into the life and times of the magicians who wrote them.
  16. The True Grimoire” by Jake Kent-Stratton - The True Grimoire is a major contribution to the practice and study of Goetic magic. The neglected Grimorium Verum has been restored to it's rightful place as a potent and coherent system of Goetic magic. Jake Stratton-Kent has reconstructed a working version from the corrupted Italian and French versions of this important grimoire.
  17. Geosophia: The Argo of Magic” by Jake Stratton-Kent - Geosophia traces the development of magic from the Greeks to the grimoires, laying bare the chthonic roots of goetic ritual. By exposing the necromantic origins of much of modern magic we are able to reconnect with the source of our ritual tradition. There is a continuity of practice in the West which encompasses the pre-Olympian cults of Dionysus and Cybele, is found in the Greek Magical Papyri and Picatrix and flows into the grimoires.
  18. "Ancient Christian Magic: Coptic Texts of Ritual Power" by Marvin W. Meyer & Richard Smith - This provocative collection of rites, spells, amulets, curses, and recipes of the early Coptic Christians documents Christianity as a living folk religion resembling other popular belief systems - something quite different from what theological and doctrinal traditions have led us to believe.
  19. Invoking Angels: Theurgic Ideas and Practices, Thirteenth to Sixteenth Centuries” edited by Claire Fanger - Bring0s together a tightly themed collection of essays on late medieval and early modern texts concerned with the role of angels in the cosmos, focusing on angelic rituals and spiritual cosmologies. Collectively, these essays tie medieval angel magic texts more clearly to medieval religion and to the better-known author-magicians of the early modern period.
  20. The Testament of Cyprian the Mage” by Jake Stratton-Kent - An ambitious and far-seeing work, addressing two ends of the magical spectrum: the Testament of Solomon and one version of the Iberian Book of Saint Cyprian. In doing so, key aspects of magical practice are revealed. This work draws upon these texts to create a clear understanding of the practice of grimoire magic, not as a discrete or degenerate subset of ceremonial magic, but one which is integrated with folk magic and witchcraft.
  21. Veritable Key of Solomon” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - Based on one of the best-known grimoires of the Western world, The Veritable Key of Solomon presents all aspects of this revered magical system in one impressive source.
  22. The Magical Treatise of Solomon, or Hygromanteia” by Ioannis Marathakis - The true source of the Key of Solomon, it is arguably the most significant magical text in the world. For the first time ever, this extraordinary work has been translated from the original Greek into English.
  23. Magic, Witchcraft and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman World: A Sourcebook” by Daniel Ogden - Contains three hundred texts in new translations, along with brief but explicit commentaries. Alongside descriptions of sorcerers, witches, and ghosts in the works of ancient writers, it reproduces curse tablets, spells from ancient magical recipe books, and inscriptions from magical amulets.
  24. Ancient Jewish Magic: A History” by Gideon Bohak - Gives a pioneering account of the broad history of ancient Jewish magic, from the Second Temple to the rabbinic period. It is based both on ancient magicians' own compositions and products in Aramaic, Hebrew and Greek, and on the descriptions and prescriptions of non-magicians, to reconstruct a historical picture that is as balanced and nuanced as possible.
  25. John Dee's Natural Philosophy: Between Science and Religion” by Nicholas Clulee - Thoroughly examining Dee’s natural philosophy, this book provides a balanced evaluation of his place, and the role of the occult, in sixteenth-century intellectual history. It brings together insights from a study of Dee’s writings, the available biographical material, and his sources as reflected in his extensive library and, more importantly, numerous surviving annotated volumes from it.
  26. Grimoires: A History of Magic Books” by Owen Davies - Put simply, grimoires are books of spells that were first recorded in the Ancient Middle East and which have developed and spread across much of the Western Hemisphere and beyond over the ensuing millennia. At their most benign, they contain charms and remedies for natural and supernatural ailments and advice on contacting spirits to help find treasures and protect from evil. But at their most sinister they provide instructions on how to manipulate people for corrupt purposes and, worst of all, to call up and make a pact with the Devil. Both types have proven remarkably resilient and adaptable and retain much of their relevance and fascination to this day.
  27. The Language of Demons and Angels: Cornelius Agrippa's Occult Philosophy” by Christopher I. Lehrich - The analysis walks the reader through the text of De Occulta Philosophia, Agrippa's 1533 masterpiece, explicating the often hidden structure and argument of the work.
  28. Thrice-Greatest Hermes; Studies in Hellenistic Theosophy and Gnosis” by G. R. S. Mead - Three Volumes bound into one. Volume contents are: Vol. 1. Prolegomena. -- Vol. 2. Sermons. -- Vol. 3. Excerpts and fragments.
  29. The Egyptian Hermes: A Historical Approach to the Late Pagan Mind” by Garth Fowden - Starting from the complex fusions and tensions that molded Graeco-Egyptian culture, and in particular Hermetism, during the centuries after Alexander, the author argues that the technical and philosophical Hermetica, apparently so different, might be seen as aspects of a single "way of Hermes".
  30. Restless Dead: Encounters between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Topics of focus include the origin of the goes (the ritual practitioner who made interaction with the dead his specialty), the threat to the living presented by the ghosts of those who died dishonorably or prematurely, the development of Hecate into a mistress of ghosts and its connection to female rites of transition, and the complex nature of the Erinyes.
  31. Hekate Soteira: A Study of Hekate's Roles in the Chaldean Oracles and Related Literature” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Hekate is best known to classicists and historians of religion as the horrific patroness of witches. But from the Hellenistic age onward, some Greek and Roman philosophers and magicians portrayed her quite differently.
  32. Magic and Ritual in the Ancient World” edited by Paul Mirecki and Marvin Meyer.
  33. Marsilio Ficino: His Theology, His Philosophy, His Legacy” edited by V. Rees, Michael J. B. Allen & Valery Rees - This volume consists of 21 essays on Marsilio Ficino (1433-99), the great Florentine scholar, philosopher and priest who was the architect of Renaissance Platonism and whose long-lasting influence on philosophy, love and music theory, medicine and magic extended across Europe.
  34. Secrets of Nature: Astrology and Alchemy in Early Modern Europe” edited by William R. Newman & Anthony Grafton - Shows the many ways in which astrology and alchemy diverge as well as intersect. Overall, it shows how an appreciation of the role of the occult opens up new ways of understanding the past.
  35. Trithemius and Magical Theology: A Chapter in the Controversy over Occult Studies in Early Modern Europe” by Noel L. Brann - This is a very useful, exciting and informative text for those interested in the philosophy and theology behind Renaissance Magic. Mentor to Agrippa, pioneer of cryptography, Trithemius is one of the most important (and well-placed in Church history) yet difficult to understand of the great Renaissance writers on magic, and this book provides a detailed but readable introduction to his views on the subject.
  36. John Dee's Conversations with Angels” by Deborah E. Harkness - John Dee's angel conversations have been an enigmatic facet of Elizabethan England's most famous natural philosopher's life and work. Professor Harkness contextualizes Dee's angel conversations within the natural philosophical, religious and social contexts of his time. She argues that they represent a continuing development of John Dee's earlier concerns and interests. These conversations include discussions of the natural world, the practice of natural philosophy, and the apocalypse.
  37. John Dee's Occultism: Magical Exaltation Through Powerful Signs” by Gyorgy E. Szonyi - Presents an analysis of Renaissance occultism and its place in the chronology of European cultural history. Culling examples of "magical thinking" from classical, medieval, and Renaissance philosophers, Szonyi revisits the body of Dee's own scientific and spiritual writings as reflective sources of traditional mysticism.
  38. The Arch Conjuror of England: John Dee” by Glyn Parry - Explores Dee’s vast array of political, magical, and scientific writings and finds that they cast significant new light on policy struggles in the Elizabethan court, conservative attacks on magic, and Europe's religious wars. John Dee was more than just a fringe magus, Parry shows Dee was a major figure of the Reformation and Renaissance.
  39. The Eternal Hermes: From Greek God to Alchemical Magus” by Antoine Favre - Drawing upon rare books and manuscripts, this highly illustrated work explores the question of where Hermes Trismegistus came from how he came to be a patron of the esoteric traditions and how the figure of Hermes has remained lively and inspiring to our own day.
  40. Glamorous Sorcery: Magic and Literacy in the High Middle Ages” by David Rollo - Demonstrates how closely interconnected certain types of vernacular and Latin writing were in this period. Uncovered through a series of illuminating, incisive, and often surprising close readings, these connections give us a new, more complex appraisal of the relationship between literacy, social status, and political power in a time and place in which various languages competed for cultural sovereignty-at a critical juncture in the cultural history of the West.
  41. Unlocked Books: Manuscripts of Learned Magic in the Medieval Libraries of Central Europe” by Benedek Láng - During the Middle Ages, the Western world translated the incredible Arabic scientific corpus and imported it into Western culture: Arabic philosophy, optics, and physics, as well as alchemy, astrology, and talismanic magic. The line between the scientific and the magical was blurred. According to popular lore, magicians of the Middle Ages were trained in the art of magic in “magician schools” located in various metropolitan areas, such as Naples, Athens, and Toledo.
  42. The History of Magic and Experimental Science” by Lynn Thorndike.
  43. The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practice” by Robert K. Ritner - This study represents the first critical examination of "magical techniques," revealing their widespread appearance and pivotal significance for all Egyptian "religious" practices from the earliest periods through the Coptic era, influencing as well the Greco-Egyptian magical papyri.
  44. Eternal Egypt: Ancient Rituals for the Modern World” by Richard J. Reidy - The first comprehensive collection of important temple rituals performed throughout Egypt during the time of the pharaohs. The author presents seven key rites from official temple records and ancient esoteric texts for personal or group use.
  45. Arguing With Angels” by Egil Asprem - Examining this magical system from its Renaissance origins to present day occultism, Egil Asprem shows how the reception of Dee’s magic is replete with struggles to construct and negotiate authoritative interpretational frameworks for doing magic. Arguing with Angels offers a novel, nuanced approach to questions about how ritual magic has survived the advent of modernity and demonstrates the ways in which modern culture has recreated magical discourse.
  46. Dictionary of Gnosis & Western Esotericism” by Wouter J. Hanegraaff - This is the first comprehensive reference work to cover the entire domain of “Gnosis and Western Esotericism” from the period of Late Antiquity to the present. Containing around 400 articles by over 180 international specialists, it provides critical overviews discussing the nature and historical development of all its important currents and manifestations, from Gnosticism and Hermetism to Astrology, Alchemy and Magic, from the Hermetic Tradition of the Renaissance to Rosicrucianism and Christian Theosophy, and from Freemasonry and Illuminism to 19th-century Occultism and the contemporary New Age movement.
  47. The Alchemy of Light: Geometry and Optics in Late Renaissance Alchemical Illustration” by Ursula Szulakowska - This study concerns the late Renaissance metaphysics of light in its adoption to a Paracelsian alchemical context by John Dee, Heinrich Khunrath, Michael Maier and Robert Fludd. he volume includes 50 illustrations from alchemical treatises of the period, the emphasis being placed on Khunrath's "Amphiteatrum Sapientiea Aeternae" (1595-1609). The study investigates these images using analytical tools drawn from semiotics, structuralism and post-structuralism.
  48. Theurgy and the Soul: The Neoplatonism of Iamblichus” by Gregory Shaw - A study of Iamblichus of Syria (ca. 240-325), whose teachings set the final form of pagan spirituality prior to the Christianization of the Roman Empire. Shaw focuses on the theory and practice of theurgy, the most controversial and significant aspect of Iamblichus's Platonism.
  49. Platonic Theology, Volume 1: Books I-IV” by Marsilio Ficino, edited by James Hankins - A visionary work and philosophical masterpiece of Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499), the Florentine scholar-philosopher-magus who was largely responsible for the Renaissance revival of Plato. A student of the Neoplatonic schools of Plotinus and Proclus, Ficino was committed to reconciling Platonism with Christianity, in the hope that such a reconciliation would initiate a spiritual revival and return of the golden age. This is one of the keys to understanding the art, thought, culture, and spirituality of the Renaissance.
  50. Giordano Bruno and Renaissance Science” by Hilary Gatti - This argument, associated with the work of Frances Yates, holds that early modern science was impregnated with and shaped by Hermetic and occult traditions, and has led scholars to view Bruno primarily as a magus.
  51. De Umbris Idearum” (The Collected Works of Giordano Bruno, Book 1)” by Giordano Bruno, edited by Scott Gosnell - To memorize anything, distribute vivid, emotionally stirring imagined images around a piece of familiar architecture. This is the method of loci, or memory palace method, first developed in classical antiquity.
  52. "Hermes: Guide of Souls" by Karl Kerenyi, translated by Murray Stein - Presents an authoritative study of the great god Hermes whom the Greeks revered as the Guides of Souls as well as the complex role of Hermes in classical mythology.
  53. Ritual Texts for the Afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets” by Fritz Graf and Sarah Illes Johnston - Fascinating texts written on small gold tablets that were deposited in graves provide a unique source of information about what some Greeks and Romans believed regarding the fate that awaited them after death, and how they could influence it. These texts, dating from the late fifth century BCE to the second century CE, have been part of the scholarly debate on ancient afterlife beliefs since the end of the nineteenth century. The tablets belonged to those who had been initiated into the mysteries of Dionysus Bacchius and relied heavily upon myths narrated in poems ascribed to the mythical singer Orpheus.
  54. Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World” by Matthew W. Dickie - This study is the first to assemble the evidence for the existence of sorcerors in the ancient world; it also addresses the question of their identity and social origins. The resulting investigation takes us to the underside of Greek and Roman society, into a world of wandering holy men and women, conjurors and wonder-workers, and into the lives of prostitutes, procuresses, charioteers and theatrical performers.

Further Resources
PDF’s:
Seeing The Word: John Dee and Renaissance Occultism” by Hakan Hakannson http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Seeing+the+Word%3A+John+Dee+and+Renaissance+Occultism.+.-a099012024

Miscellaneous Articles:
Khunrath by Peter Forshaw
http://uva.academia.edu/PeterForshaw
Enoch Traditions by Andrei Orlov
http://www.marquette.edu/maqom/metatronyouth.html
Hermes, Proclus, and the Question of A Philosophy of Magic in the Renaissance by Copenhaver

Websites & Blogs:
Brian P. Copenhaver
http://www.cmrs.ucla.edu/brian/index.htm
Claire Fanger:
http://rice.academia.edu/ClaireFanger
Wouter J. Hanegraaff: http://uva.academia.edu/WouterHanegraaff
The Ritman Library
https://www.youtube.com/useTheRitmanLibrary/videos

Scholarly Journals:
Dionysius
http://www.dal.ca/faculty/arts/classics/journals/dionysius.html
Aries: Journal for the Study of Western Esotericism
http://www.brill.com/aries
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2020.09.18 19:31 Brother_Moloch_969 List of Academic Pre-1800's Occult Books, Websites, Blogs & Etc.

Greetings. Several years ago, I along with some friends (Aaron Leitch, Jake Stratton-Kent, Frater Rufus Opus, and many others) contributed to a list we thought would be a great resource for studying Magic & Sorcery with academic elements listed prior to the 1800's new age movement. Here you will find a lot of useful information and realize this list is NOT complete because since the time we created this list, more academic material has emerged on the market. Also realize these books are not often found free on the Net in pdf form so you will have to do like the rest of us had to do which is purchase them - if you want them. I got many of these books in used condition from Amazon, AbeBooks, Half-Price Books, and so forth. Getting these materials & studying them will seriously up your magical game. Enjoy!
8o) Br Moloch 9.6.9.
Books:
  1. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation: Including the Demotic Spells: Texts (Volume 1)” by Hans Dieter Betz - This is a collection of magical spells and formulas, hymns, and rituals from Greco-Roman Egypt, dating from the second century B.C. to the fifth century A.D. A must read.
  2. Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World” edited by John G. Gager - In the ancient Greco-Roman world, it was common practice to curse or bind an enemy or rival by writing an incantation on a tablet and dedicating it to a god or spirit. These curses or binding spells, commonly called defixiones were intended to bring other people under the power and control of those who commissioned them
  3. Magika Hiera: Ancient Greek Magic and Religion” edited by Christopher A. Faraone & Dirk Obbink - This collection challenges the tendency among scholars of ancient Greece to see magical and religious ritual as mutually exclusive and to ignore "magical" practices in Greek religion. The contributors survey specific bodies of archaeological, epigraphical, and papyrological evidence for magical practices in the Greek world, and, in each case, determine whether the traditional dichotomy between magic and religion helps in any way to conceptualize the objective features of the evidence examined.
  4. Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Collection of Ancient Texts” by Georg Luck - Magic, miracles, daemonology, divination, astrology, and alchemy were the arcana mundi, the "secrets of the universe," of the ancient Greeks and Romans. In this path-breaking collection of Greek and Roman writings on magic and the occult, Georg Luck provides a comprehensive sourcebook and introduction to magic as it was practiced by witches and sorcerers, magi and astrologers, in the Greek and Roman worlds.
  5. Greek and Roman Necromancy” by Daniel Ogden - In classical antiquity, there was much interest in necromancy--the consultation of the dead for divination. People could seek knowledge from the dead by sleeping on tombs, visiting oracles, and attempting to reanimate corpses and skulls. Ranging over many of the lands in which Greek and Roman civilizations flourished, including Egypt, from the Greek archaic period through the late Roman empire, this book is the first comprehensive survey of the subject ever published in any language.
  6. Forbidden Rites: A Necromancer's Manual of the Fifteenth Century” by Richard Kieckhefer - Like many medieval texts for the use of magicians, this handbook is a miscellany rather than a systematic treatise. It is exceptional, however, in the scope and variety of its contents—prayers and conjurations, rituals of sympathetic magic, procedures involving astral magic, a catalogue of spirits, lengthy ceremonies for consecrating a book of magic, and other materials.
  7. Ritual Magic” by Elizabeth M. Butler - In this classic book (first published in 1949), Butler explores ritual magic using a wide range of texts from the pre-Christian rites of the Akkadians and Chaldeans to the Solomonic Clavicles of medieval Europe. Throughout, there is extensive quotation from the documents themselves, providing the reader with an authentic sense of the richness and power of these texts.
  8. Conjuring Spirits: Texts and Traditions of Medieval Ritual Magic” edited by Claire Fanger - Included are chapters by Richard Kieckhefer and Robert Mathiesen on the Sworn Book of Honorius, Michael Camille on the Ars Notoria, John B. Friedman on the Secretum Philosophorum, Nicholas Watson on the McMaster text, and Elizabeth Wade on Lullian divination. The work also includes Juris Lidaka's edition of the Liber de Angelis, and an overview of late medieval English ritual manuscripts by Frank Klaassen.
  9. The Fortunes of Faust” by Elizabeth M. Butler - Butler follows the magic tradition of the Magus—the priest-king—and its reformulation in the Christian world. In the process, the Magus was transformed into a wicked sorcerer who comes to a bad end in this world and a worse one hereafter. This conception, which gained ground in the Middle Ages, received its most categorical statement in the Faust legend.
  10. The Goetia of Dr. Rudd” by David Rankine & Stephen Skinner - The Goetia of Dr. Rudd explains how the 72 angels of the Shemhamphorash are used to evoke and safely bind demons—material that has not been made available in any previous edition. This rare volume contains a transcription of a hitherto unpublished manuscript of the Lemegeton and includes illustrations drawn from rare manuscripts held in the British Library.
  11. The Complete Magician’s Tables” by Stephen Skinner - The sources of this remarkable compilation range from classic grimoires such as the Sworn Book to modern theories of prime numbers and atomic weights. Data from Peter de Abano, Abbott Trithemium, Albertus Magnus, Cornelius Agrippa, and other prominent scholars is referenced here, in addition to hidden gems found in unpublished medieval grimoires and Kabbalistic works.
  12. The Keys to the Gateway of Magic: Summoning the Solomonic Archangels and Demon Princes” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - This classic text of the Nine Great Keys details the invocation of the Archangels, the full hierarchy of spiritual beings (including Olympic Spirits and Elementals) and the evocation of the four Demon Princes
  13. Three Books of Occult Philosophy” by Henry Cornelius Agrippa & edited by Donald Tyson - How magicians collect virtues from the three-fold World, is declared in these three books. Seeing there is a three-fold World, Elementary, Celestial, and Intellectual, and every inferior is governed by its superior. Indispensable.
  14. The Complete Picatrix: The Occult Classic Of Astrological Magic Liber Atratus” translated by John Michael Greer & Christopher Warnock - The Picatrix is the most famous grimoire of astrological magic and one of the most important works of medieval and Renaissance magic. With all four books of the Latin Picatrix complete in one volume, the Picatrix is an encyclopedic work with over 300 pages of Hermetic magical philosophy, ritual, talismanic and natural magic.
  15. Secrets of the Magical Grimoires Revealed” by Aaron Leitch - The magickal methods and esoteric knowledge of medieval Europe (476 to 1453 C.E.) form the ancestral backbone of modern ceremonial magick. To understand medieval magick, it’s necessary to know the primary repositories of this knowledge - the grimoires of spells, incantations, and ritual instructions for working with angels and conjuring spirits. And to understand the grimoires, you must delve into the life and times of the magicians who wrote them.
  16. The True Grimoire” by Jake Kent-Stratton - The True Grimoire is a major contribution to the practice and study of Goetic magic. The neglected Grimorium Verum has been restored to it's rightful place as a potent and coherent system of Goetic magic. Jake Stratton-Kent has reconstructed a working version from the corrupted Italian and French versions of this important grimoire.
  17. Geosophia: The Argo of Magic” by Jake Stratton-Kent - Geosophia traces the development of magic from the Greeks to the grimoires, laying bare the chthonic roots of goetic ritual. By exposing the necromantic origins of much of modern magic we are able to reconnect with the source of our ritual tradition. There is a continuity of practice in the West which encompasses the pre-Olympian cults of Dionysus and Cybele, is found in the Greek Magical Papyri and Picatrix and flows into the grimoires.
  18. "Ancient Christian Magic: Coptic Texts of Ritual Power" by Marvin W. Meyer & Richard Smith - This provocative collection of rites, spells, amulets, curses, and recipes of the early Coptic Christians documents Christianity as a living folk religion resembling other popular belief systems - something quite different from what theological and doctrinal traditions have led us to believe.
  19. Invoking Angels: Theurgic Ideas and Practices, Thirteenth to Sixteenth Centuries” edited by Claire Fanger - Bring0s together a tightly themed collection of essays on late medieval and early modern texts concerned with the role of angels in the cosmos, focusing on angelic rituals and spiritual cosmologies. Collectively, these essays tie medieval angel magic texts more clearly to medieval religion and to the better-known author-magicians of the early modern period.
  20. The Testament of Cyprian the Mage” by Jake Stratton-Kent - An ambitious and far-seeing work, addressing two ends of the magical spectrum: the Testament of Solomon and one version of the Iberian Book of Saint Cyprian. In doing so, key aspects of magical practice are revealed. This work draws upon these texts to create a clear understanding of the practice of grimoire magic, not as a discrete or degenerate subset of ceremonial magic, but one which is integrated with folk magic and witchcraft.
  21. Veritable Key of Solomon” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - Based on one of the best-known grimoires of the Western world, The Veritable Key of Solomon presents all aspects of this revered magical system in one impressive source.
  22. The Magical Treatise of Solomon, or Hygromanteia” by Ioannis Marathakis - The true source of the Key of Solomon, it is arguably the most significant magical text in the world. For the first time ever, this extraordinary work has been translated from the original Greek into English.
  23. Magic, Witchcraft and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman World: A Sourcebook” by Daniel Ogden - Contains three hundred texts in new translations, along with brief but explicit commentaries. Alongside descriptions of sorcerers, witches, and ghosts in the works of ancient writers, it reproduces curse tablets, spells from ancient magical recipe books, and inscriptions from magical amulets.
  24. Ancient Jewish Magic: A History” by Gideon Bohak - Gives a pioneering account of the broad history of ancient Jewish magic, from the Second Temple to the rabbinic period. It is based both on ancient magicians' own compositions and products in Aramaic, Hebrew and Greek, and on the descriptions and prescriptions of non-magicians, to reconstruct a historical picture that is as balanced and nuanced as possible.
  25. John Dee's Natural Philosophy: Between Science and Religion” by Nicholas Clulee - Thoroughly examining Dee’s natural philosophy, this book provides a balanced evaluation of his place, and the role of the occult, in sixteenth-century intellectual history. It brings together insights from a study of Dee’s writings, the available biographical material, and his sources as reflected in his extensive library and, more importantly, numerous surviving annotated volumes from it.
  26. Grimoires: A History of Magic Books” by Owen Davies - Put simply, grimoires are books of spells that were first recorded in the Ancient Middle East and which have developed and spread across much of the Western Hemisphere and beyond over the ensuing millennia. At their most benign, they contain charms and remedies for natural and supernatural ailments and advice on contacting spirits to help find treasures and protect from evil. But at their most sinister they provide instructions on how to manipulate people for corrupt purposes and, worst of all, to call up and make a pact with the Devil. Both types have proven remarkably resilient and adaptable and retain much of their relevance and fascination to this day.
  27. The Language of Demons and Angels: Cornelius Agrippa's Occult Philosophy” by Christopher I. Lehrich - The analysis walks the reader through the text of De Occulta Philosophia, Agrippa's 1533 masterpiece, explicating the often hidden structure and argument of the work.
  28. Thrice-Greatest Hermes; Studies in Hellenistic Theosophy and Gnosis” by G. R. S. Mead - Three Volumes bound into one. Volume contents are: Vol. 1. Prolegomena. -- Vol. 2. Sermons. -- Vol. 3. Excerpts and fragments.
  29. The Egyptian Hermes: A Historical Approach to the Late Pagan Mind” by Garth Fowden - Starting from the complex fusions and tensions that molded Graeco-Egyptian culture, and in particular Hermetism, during the centuries after Alexander, the author argues that the technical and philosophical Hermetica, apparently so different, might be seen as aspects of a single "way of Hermes".
  30. Restless Dead: Encounters between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Topics of focus include the origin of the goes (the ritual practitioner who made interaction with the dead his specialty), the threat to the living presented by the ghosts of those who died dishonorably or prematurely, the development of Hecate into a mistress of ghosts and its connection to female rites of transition, and the complex nature of the Erinyes.
  31. Hekate Soteira: A Study of Hekate's Roles in the Chaldean Oracles and Related Literature” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Hekate is best known to classicists and historians of religion as the horrific patroness of witches. But from the Hellenistic age onward, some Greek and Roman philosophers and magicians portrayed her quite differently.
  32. Magic and Ritual in the Ancient World” edited by Paul Mirecki and Marvin Meyer.
  33. Marsilio Ficino: His Theology, His Philosophy, His Legacy” edited by V. Rees, Michael J. B. Allen & Valery Rees - This volume consists of 21 essays on Marsilio Ficino (1433-99), the great Florentine scholar, philosopher and priest who was the architect of Renaissance Platonism and whose long-lasting influence on philosophy, love and music theory, medicine and magic extended across Europe.
  34. Secrets of Nature: Astrology and Alchemy in Early Modern Europe” edited by William R. Newman & Anthony Grafton - Shows the many ways in which astrology and alchemy diverge as well as intersect. Overall, it shows how an appreciation of the role of the occult opens up new ways of understanding the past.
  35. Trithemius and Magical Theology: A Chapter in the Controversy over Occult Studies in Early Modern Europe” by Noel L. Brann - This is a very useful, exciting and informative text for those interested in the philosophy and theology behind Renaissance Magic. Mentor to Agrippa, pioneer of cryptography, Trithemius is one of the most important (and well-placed in Church history) yet difficult to understand of the great Renaissance writers on magic, and this book provides a detailed but readable introduction to his views on the subject.
  36. John Dee's Conversations with Angels” by Deborah E. Harkness - John Dee's angel conversations have been an enigmatic facet of Elizabethan England's most famous natural philosopher's life and work. Professor Harkness contextualizes Dee's angel conversations within the natural philosophical, religious and social contexts of his time. She argues that they represent a continuing development of John Dee's earlier concerns and interests. These conversations include discussions of the natural world, the practice of natural philosophy, and the apocalypse.
  37. John Dee's Occultism: Magical Exaltation Through Powerful Signs” by Gyorgy E. Szonyi - Presents an analysis of Renaissance occultism and its place in the chronology of European cultural history. Culling examples of "magical thinking" from classical, medieval, and Renaissance philosophers, Szonyi revisits the body of Dee's own scientific and spiritual writings as reflective sources of traditional mysticism.
  38. The Arch Conjuror of England: John Dee” by Glyn Parry - Explores Dee’s vast array of political, magical, and scientific writings and finds that they cast significant new light on policy struggles in the Elizabethan court, conservative attacks on magic, and Europe's religious wars. John Dee was more than just a fringe magus, Parry shows Dee was a major figure of the Reformation and Renaissance.
  39. The Eternal Hermes: From Greek God to Alchemical Magus” by Antoine Favre - Drawing upon rare books and manuscripts, this highly illustrated work explores the question of where Hermes Trismegistus came from how he came to be a patron of the esoteric traditions and how the figure of Hermes has remained lively and inspiring to our own day.
  40. Glamorous Sorcery: Magic and Literacy in the High Middle Ages” by David Rollo - Demonstrates how closely interconnected certain types of vernacular and Latin writing were in this period. Uncovered through a series of illuminating, incisive, and often surprising close readings, these connections give us a new, more complex appraisal of the relationship between literacy, social status, and political power in a time and place in which various languages competed for cultural sovereignty-at a critical juncture in the cultural history of the West.
  41. Unlocked Books: Manuscripts of Learned Magic in the Medieval Libraries of Central Europe” by Benedek Láng - During the Middle Ages, the Western world translated the incredible Arabic scientific corpus and imported it into Western culture: Arabic philosophy, optics, and physics, as well as alchemy, astrology, and talismanic magic. The line between the scientific and the magical was blurred. According to popular lore, magicians of the Middle Ages were trained in the art of magic in “magician schools” located in various metropolitan areas, such as Naples, Athens, and Toledo.
  42. The History of Magic and Experimental Science” by Lynn Thorndike.
  43. The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practice” by Robert K. Ritner - This study represents the first critical examination of "magical techniques," revealing their widespread appearance and pivotal significance for all Egyptian "religious" practices from the earliest periods through the Coptic era, influencing as well the Greco-Egyptian magical papyri.
  44. Eternal Egypt: Ancient Rituals for the Modern World” by Richard J. Reidy - The first comprehensive collection of important temple rituals performed throughout Egypt during the time of the pharaohs. The author presents seven key rites from official temple records and ancient esoteric texts for personal or group use.
  45. Arguing With Angels” by Egil Asprem - Examining this magical system from its Renaissance origins to present day occultism, Egil Asprem shows how the reception of Dee’s magic is replete with struggles to construct and negotiate authoritative interpretational frameworks for doing magic. Arguing with Angels offers a novel, nuanced approach to questions about how ritual magic has survived the advent of modernity and demonstrates the ways in which modern culture has recreated magical discourse.
  46. Dictionary of Gnosis & Western Esotericism” by Wouter J. Hanegraaff - This is the first comprehensive reference work to cover the entire domain of “Gnosis and Western Esotericism” from the period of Late Antiquity to the present. Containing around 400 articles by over 180 international specialists, it provides critical overviews discussing the nature and historical development of all its important currents and manifestations, from Gnosticism and Hermetism to Astrology, Alchemy and Magic, from the Hermetic Tradition of the Renaissance to Rosicrucianism and Christian Theosophy, and from Freemasonry and Illuminism to 19th-century Occultism and the contemporary New Age movement.
  47. The Alchemy of Light: Geometry and Optics in Late Renaissance Alchemical Illustration” by Ursula Szulakowska - This study concerns the late Renaissance metaphysics of light in its adoption to a Paracelsian alchemical context by John Dee, Heinrich Khunrath, Michael Maier and Robert Fludd. he volume includes 50 illustrations from alchemical treatises of the period, the emphasis being placed on Khunrath's "Amphiteatrum Sapientiea Aeternae" (1595-1609). The study investigates these images using analytical tools drawn from semiotics, structuralism and post-structuralism.
  48. Theurgy and the Soul: The Neoplatonism of Iamblichus” by Gregory Shaw - A study of Iamblichus of Syria (ca. 240-325), whose teachings set the final form of pagan spirituality prior to the Christianization of the Roman Empire. Shaw focuses on the theory and practice of theurgy, the most controversial and significant aspect of Iamblichus's Platonism.
  49. Platonic Theology, Volume 1: Books I-IV” by Marsilio Ficino, edited by James Hankins - A visionary work and philosophical masterpiece of Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499), the Florentine scholar-philosopher-magus who was largely responsible for the Renaissance revival of Plato. A student of the Neoplatonic schools of Plotinus and Proclus, Ficino was committed to reconciling Platonism with Christianity, in the hope that such a reconciliation would initiate a spiritual revival and return of the golden age. This is one of the keys to understanding the art, thought, culture, and spirituality of the Renaissance.
  50. Giordano Bruno and Renaissance Science” by Hilary Gatti - This argument, associated with the work of Frances Yates, holds that early modern science was impregnated with and shaped by Hermetic and occult traditions, and has led scholars to view Bruno primarily as a magus.
  51. De Umbris Idearum” (The Collected Works of Giordano Bruno, Book 1)” by Giordano Bruno, edited by Scott Gosnell - To memorize anything, distribute vivid, emotionally stirring imagined images around a piece of familiar architecture. This is the method of loci, or memory palace method, first developed in classical antiquity.
  52. "Hermes: Guide of Souls" by Karl Kerenyi, translated by Murray Stein - Presents an authoritative study of the great god Hermes whom the Greeks revered as the Guides of Souls as well as the complex role of Hermes in classical mythology.
  53. Ritual Texts for the Afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets” by Fritz Graf and Sarah Illes Johnston - Fascinating texts written on small gold tablets that were deposited in graves provide a unique source of information about what some Greeks and Romans believed regarding the fate that awaited them after death, and how they could influence it. These texts, dating from the late fifth century BCE to the second century CE, have been part of the scholarly debate on ancient afterlife beliefs since the end of the nineteenth century. The tablets belonged to those who had been initiated into the mysteries of Dionysus Bacchius and relied heavily upon myths narrated in poems ascribed to the mythical singer Orpheus.
  54. Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World” by Matthew W. Dickie - This study is the first to assemble the evidence for the existence of sorcerors in the ancient world; it also addresses the question of their identity and social origins. The resulting investigation takes us to the underside of Greek and Roman society, into a world of wandering holy men and women, conjurors and wonder-workers, and into the lives of prostitutes, procuresses, charioteers and theatrical performers.

Further Resources
PDF’s:
Seeing The Word: John Dee and Renaissance Occultism” by Hakan Hakannson http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Seeing+the+Word%3A+John+Dee+and+Renaissance+Occultism.+.-a099012024

Miscellaneous Articles:
Khunrath by Peter Forshaw
http://uva.academia.edu/PeterForshaw
Enoch Traditions by Andrei Orlov
http://www.marquette.edu/maqom/metatronyouth.html
Hermes, Proclus, and the Question of A Philosophy of Magic in the Renaissance by Copenhaver

Websites & Blogs:
Brian P. Copenhaver
http://www.cmrs.ucla.edu/brian/index.htm
Claire Fanger:
http://rice.academia.edu/ClaireFanger
Wouter J. Hanegraaff: http://uva.academia.edu/WouterHanegraaff
The Ritman Library
https://www.youtube.com/useTheRitmanLibrary/videos

Scholarly Journals:
Dionysius
http://www.dal.ca/faculty/arts/classics/journals/dionysius.html
Aries: Journal for the Study of Western Esotericism
http://www.brill.com/aries
Copyright www.molochsorcery.com All Rights Reserved
submitted by Brother_Moloch_969 to magick [link] [comments]


2020.09.18 06:05 Kitsunekko This current event may be a cause of concern for the direction Azur Lane is taking.

So as I'm sure many of you are aware, though I very much enjoy the patch thus far (other than the dreamworld timeout bug which is atrocious and having some mild login issues) and personally found this event to be far more generous than previous events have ever been, the most recent patch brought with it many controversies and worries, especially regarding the direction in which Azur Lane may be headed.
I myself wasn't really able to materialize most of these internal worries of mine, but another user, u/sanicek, was. I've received his permission to post an essay he had written regarding his worries about the current direction Azur Lane was headed, and his decision to quit.
Now, I don't agree with everything that has been posted here, but I do agree with a fair number of issues that u/sanicek has addressed, enough so that I think the concerns brought up in his essay warrant proper discussion, analysis, and exposure on a larger, better archived forum, so I've taken it on myself after discovering this essay (thanks to karastrinket from ALM) to bring it to the larger Azur Lane redditor audience.
Do keep in mind that it is a somewhat lengthy essay, so if you wish to discuss the issues that are addressed in depth, I would advise you to prepare some tea and perhaps some biscuits for the reading duration. A tl;dr is provided at the end nonetheless.

Hello,
with today's update I decided to quit AL and thought I would share my feedback on the reasons and general state of the game from my POV. Hopefully this is well within the scope of a game feedback channel. Gonna be my last post then you are rid of me.
Short background on who I am
Playing every single day since day 1 of official launch and Lexington opening
Commander lvl 128 20k fleet power,
#1 Lexington, I believe #3 AL global overall
100% collection (before this event, gonna miss the milestone rewards etc now)
153 lvl 120 ships ~170 oathed ships (basically oathing every ship I take above lvl 100)
regularly grinding well over 100k points on most events
Why I play AL:
- great art and variety of characters
- regular updates
- monetization used to be very generous
- great idle game that requires minimal attention to be played while working, reading, watching, playing real games, commuting, etc.
- you need time and effort to invest, not only money to reach top tiers
- instead of stamina we had the very flexible oil system
- you didn't need to pull duplicates as bulin supply was very generous
- all progression was very straightforward, few shared resources generally available from multiple sources, ie bulins, plates, BPs, gold, no convoluted bullshit progression
Why I started to like AL less and less:
1) Monetization: - every new system introduced was an additional resource drain without any resource income increase to compensate. This is true for PR, meowficcers, subs, awakening...
- global server pacing
- often events crammed back to back with little time to regain cubes
- general increasing greed and testing of limits the player base would tolerate, ie Hatsushimo, original -chan banner running in parallel to event, useless gem-only furniture designed to prey on collectors (ie cat cafe)
- PR3 fiasco
2) Game systems: - some game features are just lackluster or straight up bad:
- SOS mission implementation
- fleet management
- equipment management
- research and DR in particular
- proto core shop (the only function is to complement DR BP gain at exploitative rates once all PR are done)
- cognitive chip gain (only source is cube research that gets less rewarding once all PR are dev30, ties to above 2 points)
- RNG everywhere, cats, research, rewards
- existing systems already in game however not tied to monetization get ignored, ie: memory band rewards, more medal tiers, fleet tech
3) Technical implementation, localization, QoL - QA is abysmal, bugs, hotfixes, etc are a weekly routine after every maintenance
- 8h maintenance during prime time every week is simply unacceptable in 2020
- long standing technical insufficiencies with no improvement in sight such as support for different display ratios or iOS home bar interfering with UI elements
- text localization
- often missing in parts of new content, typos, questionable phrases, etc
- chat/text filter not adjusted to languages using latin script
- tied to above, text spacing for stuff like ship names, UI elements, chat char limit, etc
4) handling of time zones: - non-american time zones being screwed over for 2 years
- nightly commissions unusable, pvp timing, maintenance timing
- every maintenance and especially new event ones screw over non-americans
- every event time gate deliberately taking 12 hours of time away from non-americans
- simple QoL improvements not happening despite being requested since day 1, some examples: commision/lab notification visible in event screen, ship morale display, etc. there is multitude of valid QoL concerns and suggestions in trello and feedback chat
- technical progress glacial in general
- inability to deal with cheaters in a timely and effective manner
5) Communication and community management - non-existent
- no official community managers or liasons
- radio silence on every concern raised via any channel
- best we get is a troupe of discord volunteers that are mostly clueless about anything and whose only function seems to be to try to convince anyone raising valid concerns that they are wrong
Why I finally decided to quit:
As you can see above I grew more and more dissatisfied with AL over time. The game got greedier and greedier and development of features that were not directly monetizable was almost non-existent. What finally pushed me over the edge though is the combination of what was introduced to AL today and what is on the horizon in december (if they can even make that date lol).
Just to be clear this is not some rage quit over not getting a ship, in fact I got Shinano just fine and if I wasn't quitting would go for at least one more from 200 pull guarantee.
I am quitting because I see what these additions to the game represent. With Shinano, UR bulins and new currency we have:
- rarity powercreep
- new universal bulin that is more limited and harder to get
- new currency with built in monthly limit preventing from farming more of it, etc.
This is step 1 of transition of AL to more stringent progression control by the devs.
Accompanying this is the new baseline expectation on the number of pulls per event. 1.2% UR ships, and guaranteed pulls totaling 1600 cubes for the biggest whales. It's a deliberate scheme to milk big whales more, especially those going for fleet power. And it's disgusting.
Before now all UR ships were limited to 1 copy since they were either from research or retrofit. What is worse though is what we have on the horizon. Operation Siren and related gameplay mechanics. These will introduce stamina instead of oil, another step to strict gameplay limits imposed by the devs and again aimed at milking the big spenders and make them purchase oil ideally 10x each day to refill stamina making it much more p2w than normal oil based progression where you can utilize many oil saving strategies.
New end game progression is tied to this new resource. Coupled with it is the gear upgrade tree bringing convoluted bullshittery with this material or that that you need to obtain here or there. And while many people will like the new gameplay and I'm sure I would enjoy it at first a lot too it looks like it requires actual attention quite a bit more than what we have now. This is a downside for me, cba having to pay attention when trying to farm something in AL for the umpteenth time.
To summarize: With 3rd anniversary and operation siren on the horizon AL brings in almost all the shitty mechanics that are in other gachas and are the reason I don't play them:
- rarity power creep
- crap rates with pulls easily in hundreds of dollars
- stamina (and related gameplay limits and heavy p2w elements to play and farm more)
- convoluted upgrade progression
- other general changes in game direction that I strongly dislike
Simply put AL became a game I no longer wish to support and thus I'll just quit. It was fun while it lasted but now it's over. I think I'm done with gacha and freemium games in general, AL was supposed to be the last bastion but it didn't take long for money to triumph over principles.
Thank you for your time and attention in reading this essay, if you've taken it on yourself to read the whole thing.
Gonna add a personal snippet here while I have the chance:
A personal observation of mine, especially regarding Shinano: Shinano's banner may have been designed in a way that could potentially prey on the largest and thiccest of whales, but her banner is actually incredibly consumer friendly on further observation. Of note is that the SR pull rate remains 7%, while the 1.2% draw for Shinano was taken from the Common Pool. This means that in reality, this event had an 8.2% draw chance for either an SR or UR, which is incredibly generous for a gacha of this day and age. In addition, it also meant that were it any other event, that Shinano that you've acquired would have been something like a Nevada or Langley. As an extra bonus, this event even came with methods to guarantee acquiring said UR if lady luck isn't on your side, and also very generous events to grant you the UR Bulins you'll be needing for Shinano. So while the UR rate and model may be a cause for concern, should the game's future UR banners persist with the 7% SR 1.2% UR banner model, I for one would actually more than welcome future UR banners (given we're given enough time to recuperate our resources in a consumer-friendly fashion).
Please be mindful to keep the discussion civil. Yet again, thank you for your time and attention.
submitted by Kitsunekko to AzureLane [link] [comments]


2020.09.17 13:02 closeprotections Close Protection London Close Protection Services London

Close protection – is a concept that has been known for ages – it has been with us since early days of humankind and now its condition is more than satisfactory. Since time immemorial, people have tried to protect their wealth, assets, as well as their own health, life, and welfare. By means of the transfer of gathered goods, wealthy individuals have been paying other parties to protect them, their families, and possessions from others. As a general rule, young, notably strong, and grim-looking individuals have been considered perfectly suitable for such a job. The idea behind such a choice has been to scare away a potential adversary by taking advantage of the very looks of the guard. The aforementioned state of affairs has been observed for the consecutive ages. Wealthy landowners and kings created their own trusted guards (in ancient times and during the medieval age, those were troops designated to protect the authorities; later on, they were transformed into elite soldiers). Aside from serving representative and managerial purposes, such individuals were required to take care of their master and his beloved ones. In the 11th century England, during the Battle of Hastings, King Harold assembled a group of troops to protect his life and widely understood health condition. One may consider them to be the ancestors of modern bodyguards. As both civilization and society progressed, there were an increasing number of various organizations and people. Therefore, the risk of attack was significantly higher. Numerous authorities attempted to discourage potential aggressors from committing a crime by introducing severe forms of punishment. It must be noted, however, that there was still the question if it was enough to protect high authorities and the wealthy from the effects of outside attacks. The protection-oriented market has been developing to be – at some point – dominated by professional soldiers. The said progression has made it possible for police officers to investigate and deal with common, less dangerous crimes only. Together with technical revolution and the increasing social awareness, the number of citizens not satisfied with the current order skyrockets. It is likely to cause radical groups aiming at the change of the existing ruling paradigm to occur. This in turn may lead to anarchy and the increase in people willing to put their antisocial theories and plans into effect. The latter may start from sabotaging the work of others and demolishing valuable devices, but it may also end up in killings. If such a thing happens, one may openly talk about terrorism. The unusual social situation boosts the demand for personal protection. Both the army and police focus on securing the wellbeing of those of high position in the country. The rest of the threatened society must protect itself. The demand identified above has given rise to a new profession – a security guard. In the past, it was performed in a more or less organized fashion and that is why the effectiveness of arising task achievement varied. The attempt on Tsar’s Alexander the Second life on 1st March 1881 is a perfect exemplification of the formulated thesis. The ruler in question was attacked by the members of Narodnaya Volya at 2:15 P.M. A bomb was thrown under the carriage, but its explosion did not harm either the tsar or the horses. Alexander the Second, together with his companion including secret police representatives, started to assess damages. It was a mistake. At 2:20 P.M, yet another bomb was detonated. Its accuracy was notably higher as it managed to severely injure the tsar. He died relatively quickly, even with professional care he was under. At this point, it must be indicated that the demand for close protection increases. However, the perception of it is in a significant number of cases rather faulty, leading to pitiful outcomes. As it was hundreds of years earlier, modern people tend to hire grim musclemen to protect them, disregarding the fact that their intellectual level and possessed knowledge are negligible. Formerly, a test had to be passed in order for a person to be considered a bodyguard. Unfortunately, it does not hold true anymore. On numerous occasions, we can observe security guards stylized to look like stats of action movies, with the lack of intelligence written all over their faces. To give them justice, such people may also perform exceptionally well – up to the time they encounter a real attack. Unprofessional guards may be employed to protect rock stars or boxers. Real bodyguards of today are, however, highly skilled and motivated. They are trained to prevent rather than to counteract, as it may be too late in the latter case. Such people are capable of estimating potential risk and juxtaposing it with the resources at their disposal that may minimize it. Modern security guards are physically active, as well as skilled in giving first aid and driving a car defensively. They can fight without using any weapon – especially by taking advantage of psychology and persuasion. Such people are proficient in at least two languages and are characterized by an above-average intelligence level. The described model of a security guard is perfectly suited to current conditions and the needs of individuals hiring them.

VIP close protection over the world – organizations specializing in personal protection. One of the most famous and at the same time – the oldest organized bodies dealing with close protection was created in the 19th century. It was the American United States Secret Service. The USSS was created in 1865 as the US Treasury Law Enforcement Agency. Secret Service is the oldest national agency focusing entirely on investigations. Initially, their only task was to protect the economic structure of the country by means of preventing governmental cheques and bonds from being counterfeited. The mission was followed up to 1901, when president William McKinley was attacked in Buffalo (NY state). The assault resulted in appointing the Secret Service by the US Congress to protect the newly elected president, Theodore Roosevelt. In 1906, the Congress finally adopted the act on the responsibility of the Secret Service for the safety of the White House. Since 1950, the protection has been extended from presidents and first ladies only to vice-presidents as well. Before the murder of John F. Kennedy in 1963 and senator Robert F. Kennedy in 1968, the Secret Service had been a relatively small organization, employing as many as 284 agents. The discussed events translated directly into its rapid development. Currently, it is stated that over 5000 employees work for the Secret Service. Separate branches of the organization are located all over the United States, in Puerto Rico, and in other places all over the world (Paris, Lyon, London, Bonn, Rome, Milano, Hong Kong, Montreal, Lefkosa, Bogota, and Manila). The representatives of the organization are both secret agents (serving protection and investigation-related roles), as well as uniformed units responsible for the safety of the White House and diplomatic outposts. They maintain law and order by means of the network of both foot and motorized patrols, as well as of fixed posts. Such people also support other branches of the Secret Service. A wide scope of professional is also employed therein – those are electronics, engineers, communication experts, protection-related professionals, and IT workers. The Secret Service protects the president with his family, vice-president, elected vice-president, candidates for the said posts (from the 120th day before the elections onwards), former president, his children up to 16, as well as heads of other states staying in the USA in order to realize international missions. The unit of the Secret Service liable for taking care about the safety of the president in the White House fulfills its duties in identical uniforms. Due to the said fact, the Secret Service is sometimes referred to as the Uniformed Division. Its tasks also include the protection of president’s mansions, diplomatic outposts in Washington, and places alike located within the borders of the USA.

Another known formation is the Swiss Guard (Latin: Cohors Helvetica) which was for the very first time gathered on 22nd January 1506 by the then pope – Julius II. Its major aim was to protect the spiritual successor of Saint Peter and his palace. The pope wanted to grant himself protection from the enemies and avoid a political murder. In 1512, the Guard secured Vatican against French soldiers. The Defendants of the Church, as the representatives of the discussed formation were also called, had to face the biggest trail while taking care of pope Clemens VII during the invasion of Roman emperor, Charles V. The boldness, discipline, and resourcefulness of the representatives of the Guard made it possible to save the life of the pope, even though about 600 bold men died in the process. To commemorate the event, a solemn vow of the newly appointed guards takes place every year on 6th May. Each of the Swiss guards-to-be holds a banner in his left hand and raises his right hand with the thumb and two other fingers in an upright position (it is the symbol of the Holy Trinity). Then, the new soldiers promise to protect the pope and – to die in his defense if necessary. The representatives of the Swiss Guard are chosen from men between the age of 19 and 25 living in one of Swiss cantons (basing on contracts with Zurich and Lucerne). Each of them has to be at least 174 cm (5 feet and a half inch) tall and be an unmarried practicing Catholic (according to a special letter issued by the local bishop). Candidates for the service are properly trained, including teaching them how to use firearms, side arms, as well as how to defend themselves and establish proper contacts with other people. One of the items of the list is the proper usage of halberd. Currently, the number of soldiers in the Guard is estimated to circulate around 120, including officers, junior, and senior soldiers. They serve in the formation from two to twenty-five years. It must be also indicated at this point that officers and senior sergeants may be granted by the pope the right to enter into a holy matrimony. Aside from their characteristic outfit, soldiers are additionally equipped with halberds and Renaissance swords – those are the symbols of formation’s tradition. Nowadays, they are also fitted with firearms, tear gas, and excellent communication-oriented devices. With its almost five hundred years of heritage, the Swiss Guard is one of the oldest active defense-oriented groups in the world. One may assume that it will last until Switzerland and the Catholic Church exist.

Yet another example of a close protection-focused formation is the Cedrug Order, the major task of which is to take care about the ruler of Tibet – Dalai Lama. It comprises of national spiritual authorities who organized themselves in a form of an order. Thanks to strict upbringing, their physical strength is much higher than the one of secular officials. Therefore, the former are the most trusted soldiers caring about the safety of the leader of the nation. Cedurg School is located in the left wing of Potala – the palace of Dalai Lama, which is in turn situated in the Holy City of Lhasa (eastern Tibet, Kyitsu river valley). Every Tibet citizen is allowed to enroll to the school, but only chosen ones are granted the privilege to join the Order. For several hundred years, there have been a limited number of monks allowed, namely – 175. Only selected candidates have been worthy enough to defend the powerful Dalai Lama. Those are especially bold, tall, and muscular men. The representatives of the Order earned their name in 1959, when they protected the king of Tibet against Chinese adversaries.

One of the biggest organizations in the world established to consociate and train bodyguards is the International Bodyguard Association (IBA). The IBA was established in 1957 in Paris by major Lucien Victor Ott. Major Ott had been closely connected to the French Foreign Legion in Algeria since his early childhood. He had been born and raised in the said country. In 1947, he joined the French Special Forces and took part in France-Indochina war. Furthermore, he was the participant of the battle of Dien-Bien Phu that ended with the defeat of the French forces. He was being injured and captured by Vietminh. After a bold escape, he decided to join forces with the French Military Intelligence (Deuxieme Bureau). Major Lucien Ott got famous due to, inter alia, perfect securing of president Charles de Gaulle against the OAS terrorist organization. Thanks to him, 30 prepared attacks were foiled, 11 of which were aimed directly at the head of the state. After the death of the creator of a modern bodyguard profile, major Ott, one of his students – James G. Shortt took care of the management of the IBA. As a young man, he had joined a cadet school. Later on, he had become landing operation troops officer and a member of the elite SAS (Special Air Service) unit. Moreover, during his service, he also taught soldiers in Afghanistan the art of Mujahedeen war. Currently, he teaches security guards, police officers, and soldiers all over the world in the IBA branches. The main aim of the organization is to properly prepare bodyguards-to-be to properly perform their duties. It is not an entity employing such individuals, but those who have presented exceptional skills may become members of royal, diplomatic, or personal guards recommended by the IBA. Coaches being the representatives of the organization trained bodyguards in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, as well as helped during the Baltic Crisis between 1989 and 1991. The qualifications of the International Bodyguard Association are exceptional, international, and backed by the documentation concerning the organization of training sessions for the military, governmental authorities, police, and private bodyguards all over the world. Such undertakings have been continuously performed since 1957. The IBA also operates and trains willing individuals in Poland. Its branch was established in the said country in 1992. The basic training offered to candidates includes 60 hours of comprehensive preparation divided into six consecutive days. After its completion, the candidates are required to undergo the so-called refresher once a year. It is one of the conditions of the membership in the IBA.

Another training organization worth mentioning is the ESI - Executive Security International. It must be highlighted that it is one of the biggest and most appreciated American companies oriented towards training personal protection guards. Its second name is as follows: Bodyguard Training Academy for Executive, Dignitary and Celebrity Protection. The ESI was formed at the beginning of the 80s by Bob Duggan – martial arts expert and master in Hwarang Do. Its creation had been preceded by the establishment of the very first bodyguard training program by the Martial Arts Academy in Aspen, Colorado. The ESI, being one of the USA’s private schools, offers its students over 2000 hours of education with regard to protection, investigation, data gathering, company and individual security, etc. The training unit of the organization is situated high up in the mountains and is run by skilled professionals. Fun fact – film writer, Tracy Keenan Wynn, cooperates with the ESI. His preeminent task has been to create scenarios of situational exercises. While writing them, the said individual takes advantage of real life situations and attacks, such as assaults on Aldo Moro, John Paul the Second, kidnapping of Hans Martin Schleyer by the RAF (Red Army Faction), and scenarios alike. The ESI collaborates with corporations operating in the close protection branch of industry, as well as with the police and military. The organized training sessions are top secret. No journalists are allowed to enter the Aspen unit. Due to the fact that the ESI is a private school, it may provide professional training to civil, police-related, and military institutions all over the world.

The citizens of Israel have never had the chance to feel safe in their country. The issue of safety has been always treated seriously there. Aside from a constant Israel-Arab world conflict threat, the Israelis have been the subjects of terrorist attracts, both within the borders of their country and outside it. Jews and Americans are most frequent victims of operations organized by highly skilled terrorist groups. Taking into account the impact the Russian mafia has on Israel, the amount of care put on widely understood safety is fully justified. The Israeli Special Forces protect their citizens by means of intelligence and security-oriented undertakings. They host training sessions in various organizations preparing bodyguards, providing the adepts with the experience gained during the service. Most famous units of the said kind in Israel are undoubtedly the ISA - International Security Academy and the ISS - International Security School.

ISA is an international organization established and managed by former leaders, police instructors, and special service members. The very first unit of the ISA was formed in Latvia as a training and advising agency for both governmental and private security guards belonging to the Baltic States and the countries of the former USSR. The fact that the ISA is not exclusively Israeli in character is proved by the figure of the organization chairman, major Urlich Wegener – the creator and very first leader of German Border Control Service called GSG 9. The team of instructors and coaches also has international roots. The credo of the organization is that the preparation of the individuals for the proper protection of others is the key. Such people have to be offered highest quality training, extensive knowledge, and practical background. The ISS training programs are based predominantly on the experiences gained in Israel and in other countries, as well as while training people for the purpose of protecting VIPs over the world. Individuals, governmental authorities, and large-size corporations have been taking advantage of the services provided by the ISA/ISS.

At the moment, civil bodyguards are also involved in close protection. The safety of the individuals hiring them, as well as their possessions depends highly on the qualifications of the former. Quite frequently, those are former policemen, soldiers, or special force members. However, a number of inexperienced adepts would like to start their adventure with personal protection as well. Are they bound to fail in their attempts? It is not always so. The most crucial component affecting the effectiveness of the training is one’s psychological preparation. It is a commonly known fact that it is exceptional in former police officers and troops. However, it is a common belief that one can be trained how to perform the job of a bodyguard, just as it is possible to teach a person how to shoot or be properly engaged in melee combat. It all depends on one’s motivation and willingness to achieve success in the industry. Regulations to date limit the training process of a security guard to the moment of being awarded with a license. In order to perform his tasks properly, such a person has to constantly improve his skills and qualifications.

Phenomena connected with the need of utilization of close protection techniques – Terrorism/Terrorist. It goes without saying that terrorism is one of the biggest threats of today’s world. While analyzing the severity of attacks and their scale, one should not doubt that VIPs should be at all possible occasions protected against the aforementioned forms of assault. In order to assess the threat a given problem pose, its specificity must be identified at first. The notion of „terrorism” was for the first time in history used during the Conference of the International Criminal Law Association in Brussels, in 1930. To date, there have been approximately 200 various definitions of the phenomenon in question. While trying to grasp its characteristic features, one will face a number of limitations and difficulties. One of statements of historian Walter Laqueur has to be touched upon here. While asked why he has been avoiding formulating an unequivocal definition of terrorism, he replied: „For 50 or so years, people are constantly trying to understand the idea behind terrorism. It is a phenomenon having different forms, depending on its place of origin and epoch. How can one find common ground between Russian revolutionists from the end of the 19th century and Al-Qaida anarchists?

Terrorism is mainly based on the utilization of force or threat in order to achieve political or ideological goals. It is hard to say something beyond that. Terrorism is like pornography – it escapes logical classification, but if one sees it – then it becomes apparent.” It is hard to argue with the statement, as it perfectly shows the complexity of the phenomenon in question. For the purpose of this publication, a strict definition of terrorism is not needed. All that is required is the utterance formulated by Walter Laqueur stating that terrorism can be most fully perceived through its manifestations. Terrorist acts are undoubtedly illegal, as they are based on kidnapping people and forcedly taking control over means of communication, economic sabotage, attacks, robberies, demanding ransom to finance organization’s own activity, posing threat to life, health, and freedom of authorities, and kidnapping people from outside the area in order to gain publicity (especially journalists, priests, voluntary workers). One may also indicate the usage of explosives and firearms in public areas and poisoning certain spots by means of radioactive materials and chemicals. Longin Tadeusz Szmidt additionally pointed out that terrorism has always been strictly connected with crafty and hard to identify methods of killing the leaders of nations. While describing the phenomenon of terrorism as a threat for the protected person, one should also point out and indicate its sources. The following are enumerated: - social and economic sources that are directly connected to economic crises, social tensions, social and national discrimination, as well as with the perception of dissonance between the factual reality and the one presented by the media; - historical and political sources. They have their beginning in severe social reactions, demanding full democratization and respecting human rights; - sociological sources that may be related to the atmosphere typical for a given country or the so-called spirit of violence; - psychological sources stating that a significant part of terrorists is highly mentally unstable which is additionally combined with the overly high self-esteem. When it comes to the area of attack, the following are proposed by the experts: - land terrorism (the major threat area for VIPs and the key one for security guards), - air terrorism (personal protection is then entrusted to the authorities managing planes, airports, etc.), and – maritime terrorism (tasks and responsibilities are then similar to air attacks). While taking into account the type of terroristic activities, one may distinguish: bombing-based, nuclear, biological, chemical, technical, cybernetic (attacks on IT networks), and narcotic-oriented (narcotic cartels undertakings) terrorism. The highest threat for VIPs is undoubtedly the first type, namely – bombing-based one. Close protection-oriented undertakings should therefore incorporate the knowledge on paradigms effective during a bomb attack. They will be discussed in further sections of this publication. It is exceptionally difficult to argue with the thesis that we must be protected against terrorism. The same applies to VIPs. The importance of the latter is also worth discussing, as the threat is much higher when a top authority is attacked than when the assault poses threat to a pop star or a wealthy businessman. However, it does not limit the necessity to analyze and counteract terroristic attack threat. It may directly impact the safety of the person a given security guard is responsible for.

Crime is also one of the issues that may endanger protected VIPs. Up to the beginning of the 80s, Poland had been considered to be one of the safest countries in Europe. Law enforcement bodies had been numerous and properly financed there, and crime forecasting, prevention, and penalizing schemes had met all the European standards. However, at the end of the discussed period, the myth of threat-free Poland started to crumble. The effects of crime fighting scene were becoming gradually more negligible. The said state of affairs was predominantly caused by the decreasing trust in law enforcing organizations, as well as by the rapid increase in crimes committed by the citizens. Another important aspect that must be taken into account were economic and political changes taking place in 1989,the liberalization of economic activity, and the emergence of free market. Some individuals possessed unimaginable riches, whereas others were exceptionally poor. In order to survive till the next day, the latter searched for the answer in crimes, leading to the occurrence of the phenomenon commonly known as organized crime. According to official data from 2001, within the borders of Poland, there were over 400 organized crime groups consociating approximately 45 thousand people. They were generating profits by means of goods smuggling, selling stolen cars, producing and marketing narcotics, counterfeiting national currency, commuting bank frauds, selling firearms, and – what is of exceptional importance from the point of view of VIPs – demanding ransom. Criminals induce fear in the society, especially due to using terror and blackmailing. They do not hesitate to kidnap others or kill them. Such individuals resort to brutal treatment, such as beating, torturing, drowning, etc. All those factors combined directly translate into wealthy representatives of the society feeling threatened. What is more, criminals frequently tend to attack the family of a VIP as well, in order to convince him to perform a given action. Therefore, children, wife, and beloved ones of such an individual must be highly protected.

Popularity/Fame –The threat of attack may be in some cases linked to the popularity of a given human being. When a VIP is in isolation, then he may only receive unwanted phone calls or be nagged by photographers. The problem arises when he has to leave his place of permanent residence or workplace, as well as when he is in a publically accessible place. Danger may still be low, but the inquisitiveness of journalist may quickly become overwhelming. Fans or supporters of a given sportsman or artist may cause havoc in order to touch their idol or get hold of any item belonging to him or her. Of course, there is also the risk of serious injuries or even death (let us take John Lennon as an example) – it cannot be neglected. That is why famous and popular individuals should by all means care about their safety. The matter also concerns politicians who are widely recognizable and controversial. In politics, there are no limitations. Opponents may even resort to killing a representative of the other side to impose his or her right on others. Elected politicians tend to have close protection, but care should be additionally exercised to care about those running in elections. Such VIPs may be ridiculed by the crowd or the opposition (by throwing eggs or pouring water over the candidate), leading to the end of their political career. The role of security guards should in the aforementioned cases not be limited to physical protection only. They must also keep information about VIP’s family, realized projects, and operation profile confidential. The image of a famous person highly depends on the bodyguards being in his immediate surroundings. The manner of their operation, professionalism, and knowledge are top priorities there.

Attack on person – By definition, attack on person is the attempt to kill someone, steal his or her possessions, as well as to kidnap him or her. The criminal action in question has a long history, as assaults have been made throughout the consecutive ages. Their goal has been to achieve a political, economic, or cultural aim. Attacks on person may lead to tremendous changes in the society, which is perfectly depicted by the killing of John Kennedy and Icchak Rabin. In the majority of cases, however, such an attack does not have significantly far-reaching consequences. In order to be effective, bodyguards must answer themselves the following questions – why do criminals attack? How do they attack? How may the assault look like? Therefore, it is highly advised to specify the motif, methods utilized, and consecutive stages of one and every attack on person. Taking into account motifs, one must bear in mind that all the assaults have their agenda. No attack is made voluntarily, without forethought. In the following sections, most common causes of the aforementioned activity are going to be enumerated:

Revolutionary or political ones – organized groups (frequently consisting of fanatics) attack others in order to force the society to change the existing system or overthrow the current government (in the attempt to choose a new one). Their victims are often the authorities ruling the country. The attackers, who follow their revolutionary or political agenda, try to win the sympathy of other representatives of the society. Long before the planned attack itself, they distribute leaflets blaming current rulers for the widespread injustice. According to their belief, the elimination of the elites in power would bring positive outcomes for the whole country. Such an action was performed in Armenia in 1999, where members of the government were shot dead during one of their meetings. The terrorists informed that their death would improve the national situation.

Economic – terrorists claim that their potential victim is responsible for the poor economic condition of the country, company, or a group of people. In the majority of cases, economic attacks take place in countries where there are extreme disproportions between the wealthy and the poor. It must be taken into consideration, however that it is not always the case, as the assessment of the attackers tend to be highly subjective. Quite frequently, the cause of the assault is the personal conviction that the unsatisfying economic condition of the terrorist is the result of actions performed by the victim. It pushes the attacker into thinking that killing him would aid the situation.

Personal – In this case, the wrongdoers are motivated to make an attack due to jealousy, vengeance or other personal causes. Those people in many cases have notable personality disorders, manifesting themselves especially in the inability to control their behavior. The aforementioned state also leads to the failure to distinguish reality from fiction. A perfect exemplification of the motif in question is shooting Zuzanna Leśniak and an artist – Andrzej Zaucha by Yves Goulais in 1991. The trigger there was jealousy.

Ideological – The terrorist is convinced that the victim chosen by him has been threatening the values and principles followed by the attacker. The said rules are often of significant importance for both the group he belongs to and for himself personally. Ideological attacks on a person may be religious or social in character. The first case is oriented towards killing a religious person in the attempt to make it impossible for him to achieve his goals. The second scenario relates to the willingness to eliminate the leader of a given social group. Quite frequently, the additional agenda is to make the organization the terrorist is a part of more memorable and popular in the media. Free publicity is an additional benefit then.

Psychological – The most commonplace group of attacks. Modern psychology claims that every person using firearms, stabbing others with a knife, or taking advantage of explosives has been struggling with mental problems. The motif is of negligible importance, as the attacker may justify his actions with revolutionary, economic, or personal goals, but the fact is that the driving force is the inability to perceive the world correctly. The assassination of Bill Clinton in 1994 illustrates the above bluntly. Francisco Martin Duran stated that he had attacked Clinton to destroy the mist connecting him to an alien entity. Apparently, Duran wanted to eliminate the mist in order to save the world. Attacks considered as crimes may be triggered by a myriad of factors. Among them,there are: - clashes between the representatives of a crime organization, willingness to demonstrate one’s power or threat the victim (attempt to force the latter to pay ransom or forget about debts), - desire to kill suspects that may endanger one’s business, - attempt to exert pressure on certain individuals or to threaten them for their professional achievements (relates to, inter alia, attorneys and tax collectors).

Attack methods to be considered by security guards. Close range attack. It may be performed by means of utilization of: - firearms, - melee weapon (knife, bayonet, dagger), - chemical substance (for example: toxic substance, such as hydrochloric acid). There are no exceptional skills needed to successfully attack a person, as almost everybody can use a knife or a dagger to a satisfactory extent. The same goes with firearms, the utilization of which is as difficult as driving a car. The aforementioned types of weapons can be transported to the place of the assault with ease. The characteristic feature of this attack type is the fact that the wrongdoer is situated maximally several centimeters away from the victim. The difficulty here is directly connected with the inability to improvise the act. It must be preceded by a prolonged observation of the subject, learning his or her customs, daily routine, places he or she visits, and the protection type he or she uses. Only after drawing proper conclusions from the examination, can the terrorist attack the victim. Marek Papała, a police commissioner, was killed due to a close range attack in 1998, Warsaw.

Long-range attack – in this case firearms are often used, especially rifles and carbines. It is not an uncommon situation to learn about an attacker who has used a sniper rifle fitted with professional laser and optical aiming devices. The distance between the wrongdoer and the subject of the attack is commonly higher than 5 meters. The former must also be much more skilled than a close range attacker, as he has to be capable of utilizing a professional gun in an effective manner. The death of John Kennedy in Dallas on 22nd November 1963 was the result of the attack form in question. Lee Harvey Oswald, who was a former marine soldier, shot his subject from a storage located several meters away from president’s cavalcade. To perform the act, he used Mannlicher-Carcano, cal. 6.5 mm rifle. The proficiency of the attacker was proven by the fact that he fired three shots and only one of them missed the target.

Attack with explosives – it requires notable skills, for the wrongdoers has to build a bomb before performing the attack. He must also know how and where to plant the explosive, how to situate the fuse inside and where to detonate it. Such a person also has to be familiar with the effects of explosion. Assault on Margaret Thatcher on 12th October 1984 showed how patient and clever can an attacker taking advantage of explosives be. Patrick Magee, a member of Irish Republican Army, moved into the hotel where the British prime minister was expected to stay 24 days before the said fact. Every single day, he worked meticulously destroying the wall and placing a 50-kilogram explosive inside the hole. The bomb was then fitted with a timer. It exploded when Miss Thatcher was considered to wash herself in the bathroom – the attacker was perfectly acquainted with her customs. She would have died if she had not received a document to be read. The explosive was detonated five floors above the bathroom located in the apartment of the „Iron Lady”. Six other people died as a result, but the suspect managed to avoid the clever assassination.

If you are looking to hire close protection in London do not wait and contact us immiedletly for professional bodyguard services in London.
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2020.09.14 21:17 StevenStevens43 Rothechtaid moses family (2)

Rothechtaid moses family (2)
Red shield:
This article is in response to another article i wrote, which i will link to below.
In my last article, i received a reply from someone.
Rothechtaid family
  • FetterJoint wrote
I believe you are, at least, mistaken with the origin of the name „Rothschild“. It does not come from the word „child“, but rather the German „Schild“ meaning „shield“. Rothschild means „red schield“.
Link for photo
Flag of Alba
Rothenschild:
So. Is FetterJoint correct?
Yes, of course he is.
Overview
The name is derived from the German zum rothen Schild (with the old spelling "th"), meaning "at the red shield", in reference to the house where the family lived for many generations (in those days houses were designated not by numbers but by signs displaying different symbols or colours). A red shield can still be seen at the centre of the Rothschild coat of arms.
Link for photo
Rothschild family crest
Red:
Now, let us take on board the information received from FetterJoint, and work out whether or not this strengthens my position, or weakens it.
So let us look at the meanings of "Roth", once again.
Roth obviously has strong connections with the word "red".
I will also only point out the definitions which best support my position.
I will however produce a link, which links directly to the list of definitions, and you can decide yourself if i left anything out which would "contradict" my argument.
But 3, 4, 5 were left out due to irrelevance.
Roth surname)
  1. The spilling of blood from the warrior class of ancient Germanic soldiers;
  2. Ethnic name for an Anglo-Saxon, derived from rot (meaning "red" before the 7th century), referencing red-haired people;
  3. Derivative from roe in the ancient Danish language to signify (of) a king;
7, Of the red colour of clay, as in pottery (German).
Ebraucus:
Now, i aim to attempt to find out where the orgins of Rothechtaids becoming "Red shields", might come from.
And i will begin with a supposed king of Albany (Scotland) from approximately 1060 BC to 1010 BC, named Ebraucus.
Now, according to British legends, Ebraucus founded the village of Eboracum, which later evolved in to the City of York.
I will also just add. It is in fact likely not true that Scotland did not get conquered by the Romans.
As i have revealed in prior threads, there is a natural border between Northern Britain and Southern britain running all the way between the river Humber, just below York, and the Lake district, in the form of rivers and streams that flow out in to the Irish sea.
In British legends, this marked the border between Loegria (England) and Albany (Scotland).
So when the Romans conquered Eboracum, that was likely Albion/Caledionia, and they pushed the border up to Hadrians wall.
Ebraucus
He founded two settlements: Kaerebrauc, the City of Ebraucus (Eboracum), north of the Humber (this later became York,
Link for photo
Constantine the Great in Eboracum
Eboracum:
So, is it true that York derived it's name from Eboracum?
Well, yes. The etymological roots of the word York, is Eboracum.
Origin of the name
The word York (Old Norse: Jórvík) is derived from the Brittonic name Eburākon (Latinised) variously as Eboracum, Eburacum or Eburaci),
Link for photo
Tower of Eboracum
Alclud:
Another sensational claim is that Ebraucus also founded the old Capital of Albany, Alclud, in Strathclyde.
Ebraucus
and Alclud in Albany (now part of Dunbarton, capital of Strathclyde).
Breton:
So what evidence is there to suggest this is true?
Well, in actual fact, contemporary historians and scholars, agree, that the Brythonic language evolved out of the old Albannach speaking kingdom of Alclud, when Alclud became "Breton", the capital of Strathclyde, not long after the Romans left.
Strathclyde
Strathclyde (lit. "Strath of the River Clyde"), originally Cumbric: Ystrad Clud or Alclud (and Strath-Clota in Anglo-Saxon), was one of the early medieval kingdoms of the Britons) in what the Welsh call Hen Ogledd ("the Old North"), the Brythonic-speaking parts of what is now southern Scotland and northern England. The kingdom developed during the post-Roman period. It is also known as Alt Clut, a Brittonic term for Dumbarton Castle,[1]
Link for photo
Strathclyde
Town of Maidens:
Apparently, Ebraucus also built the town of Maidens, which was supposed to be an ancient settlement on the castle rock, which is the location of todays Edinburgh castle.
Ebraucus
According to Polydore Vergil he "builded the town of Maidens, now called Edinburgh Castle,
Link for photo
Edinburgh castle
Maidens castle:
So what is the truth in this?
Well, in actual fact, the Edinburgh castle was in fact referred to as the Maidens castle, right up until the 16th Century.
Earliest habitation
The name "Maidens' Castle" (Latin: Castra or Castellum Puellarum) occurs frequently up until the 16th century.[15] It appears in charters of David I (r. 1124–1153) and his successors,[16] although the reason for it is not known. William Camden's survey of Britain, Britannia (1607), records that "the Britans called [it] Castle Myned Agned [winged rock], the Scots, the Maidens Castle
Link for photo
LLUEDDINIAWN Castle
Battle against Gauls:
Now, Ebraucus also fought a battle against Gauls, and slaughtered them, apparently.
Ebraucus
Following the death of his father, Mempricius, he became king and reigned 39 years. According to Geoffrey he was admired, tall, and remarkably strong. He was the first to wage war on the Gauls since the time of Brutus. By pillaging the cities and shores and slaughtering many men
King Maddan:
Now, Embraucus grandfather, just so happened to be King Maddan.
So, more likely Maddans town.
It has already been revealed in a quote earlier, that Embraucus is the son of Mempricius.
Mempricius
Mempricius (Welsh: Membyr) was a legendary king of the Britons), as recounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. He was the son of King Maddan and brother of Malin.
Enna Airdech:
Now, i understand this all might be hard to follow, and might be getting confusing, but you might just have to read things over carefully.
Enna Airgdech was an Irish high king that avenged the death of his father, by killing Oengus Olmucaid.
Enna Airgdech
Énna Airgdech ("rich in silver",[1] also spelled Airgthech, Airgtheach), son of Eochu Mumu, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He came to power after killing the previous incumbent and his father's killer, Óengus Olmucaid,
Oengus Olmucaid:
Oengus Olmucaid, was an Irish high king who was credited with conquering the whole of Albany, aswell as the Orkneys, and probably Germanic parts of Scandinavia (Schleswig)
Oengus Olmucaid
Óengus Olmucaid (or Aengus Olmucada), son of Fíachu Labrainne, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. During the reign of his father, he conquered Scotland. He came to power by killing the incumbent High King, Eochu Mumu, who had killed his father twenty-one years earlier. He fought many battles against the Cruithne), the Fir Bolg, the Fomorians and other peoples of Ireland, the people of the Orkney islands, and even the Longobardi. He was killed by Enna Airgdech, son of Eochu Mumu,
Rothechtaid mac Main 1005 BC until 980 BC:
Now, Rothechtaid mac Main also reigned as high king of Ireland from 1005 BC until 980 BC.
He also killed the person which killed his grand-father, and king of Albany, Oengus Olmucaid.
This would effectively make Rothechtaid mac Main, the King of Albany, and most likely related to Ebracus through Maddan and malin.
Or, Maen, depending upon dialect/
Rothechtaid mac Main
Rothechtaid, son of Maen, son of Óengus Olmucaid, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He came to power by killing the previous incumbent, his grandfather's killer Énna Airgdech, in the battle of Raigne. He ruled for twenty-two years. The Lebor Gabála Érenn gives two versions of his death. In one version, he was killed in single combat in Cruachan by Sétna Airt, who fought to protect his son Fíachu Fínscothach. In the other version, he died of his wounds in Tara.[1] The chronology of Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 1005–980 BC,[2]
Silver shields;
In order to win the throne back, Rothechtaid mac Main defeated an army (likely lombards) which used silver shields.
Enna Airgdech
Énna Airgdech ("rich in silver",[1] also spelled Airgthech, Airgtheach), son of Eochu Mumu, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He came to power after killing the previous incumbent and his father's killer, Óengus Olmucaid, in the battle of Carman. He is said to have made silver shields for his nobles in Argatros. He reigned for twenty-seven or twenty-eight years, before being killed by Óengus' grandson Rothechtaid mac Main in the battle of Raigne.[2]
Red hair:
Now that i have hopefully established that Rothechtaid mac Main and Ebraucus are likely the same person. I will now attempt to highlight why "Roth" appears to be synonymous with the word "Red".
Red hair is pretty much synonymous with people from North west europe, and you do not get any farther North West europe, than Ireland and Scotland.
Red hair
Red hair (or ginger hair) occurs naturally in one to two percent of the human population, appearing with greater frequency (two to six percent) among people of Northern or Northwestern European ancestry and lesser frequency in other populations. It is most common in individuals homozygous for a recessive allele) on chromosome 16 that produces an altered version of the MC1R protein.[1]
Link for photo
Red haired warriors chasing the Greeks, in Greece, 340 BC
Queen Tati:
Now, this surprisingly brings me to just before the time of the Hyksos, which likely began when a foreign king named Sheshi, married an Ethiopian queen named Tati, in order to forge a Canaante union with Upper egypt and Canaan, much to the displeasure of the native lower Egyptians, that placed Teti on the execration texts, which were pretty much the Egyptian equivalent of todays terrorist register, minus the voodoo dolls.
Queen Tati)
Tati's seals have been found at Leontopolis) and Abydos. Since her scarabs are of two designs, this has allowed them to be dated to the reign of Sheshi, since the designs correspond to a change that took place during his reign, as evidenced by his hundreds of surviving seals. The most likely explanation for her prominence is that she was the wife of Sheshi.[1]#cite_note-FOOTNOTERyholt199753-1)
The Egyptologist Kim Ryholt suggested that Tati's marriage was probably part of a dynastic alliance between Sheshi and the Kushite rulers of Kerma. This is suggested by the strong relations the Fourteenth Dynasty is known to have had with Kerma, as well as by the names of Tati and her presumed son.[3]#cite_note-FOOTNOTERyholt1997114%E2%80%9315-3) The name Tati is attested in earlier execration texts naming a Kushite queen (spouse of Awaw) as one of the enemies of the pharaoh.
Link for photo#/media/File:Scarab_BM20824_Newberry.png)
Tati painting
Sheshi:
So, it appears, this foreigner got in to the Nile delta, to establish a dynasty known as the Hyksos, by marrying an Ethiopian princess, regarded as a terrorist by Lower egyptians.
Sheshi
Ryholt proposed that Sheshi allied his kingdom with the Kushites in Nubia via a dynastic marriage with the Nubian princess Tati). Ryholt further posits that the son of Sheshi and Tati was Nehesy, whose name means "The Nubian", whom he believes succeeded Sheshi to the throne as the pharaoh Nehesy Aasehre.
Link for photo.jpg)
Sheshi cartouche
Ahmose I:
Of course, as has already been established in previous articles, the descendants of the Sheshi & Tati marraige, would later turn against their foreign roots, and ally themselves only with their Kushite roots, and would expel the foreigners during an uprising in 1549 BC.
Ahmose I
During his reign, Ahmose completed the conquest and expulsion of the Hyksos from the Nile Delta, restored Theban rule over the whole of Egypt and successfully reasserted Egyptian power in its formerly subject territories of Nubia and Canaan.[8]
Link for photo
Ahmose I
Amschel Moses Rothschild:
Now, this brings me to the Roth uprising to internation prominence beginning with Amschel Moses Rothschild.
Overview
The family's ascent to international prominence began in 1744, with the birth of Mayer Amschel Rothschild in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. He was the son of Amschel Moses Rothschild (born circa 1710)
Thutmosis IV:
Now, it just so happens that one of Ahmose I's descendants, was part of a Moses dynasty, which waged war, invaded, and conquered, Mesopotamian lands, which included war upon Aryan kings, and the result was the Indo-Aryan Hittite empire being sent from Southern Asia, and Northern europe, to fight the out of control native egyptians.
However, as the Moseses are actually partially descended from the people they are fighting, they might themselves have certain Northern biological components in their Nubian genes.
For example, Thutmosis IV, had reddish hair !
An African with Reddish hair !!
Buriel
His hair, which is parted in the middle, is about 16 cm (6.3 in) long and dark reddish-brown.
Link for photo
Thutmose IV
Summary:
So does this make the Rothschilds Jewish?
Does it make them related to Moses?
Does it make them Nubians?
No, i do not think so.
It probably just means, Sheshi, probably liked his Haggis.
Also, it probably also means, you do not need to be Jewish to be a Zionist.
Even red haired people may think they have an entitlement to the Egyptian throne, or were somehow wronged by Sheshi's grandchildren!

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2020.09.13 23:52 ParisG5292003 My (17F) Boyfriend (18M) of Over a Year Lied to me About his Sexual History and I Think it Might be a Dealbreaker

I think my background information is important here. I was brought up in a socially conservative family. While I have never really gone to church, but my parents have always told me that young people, particularly girls, should be coy and abstain from sex. While I think what they told me is a bit archaic, I still internalized it regardless. As a result, my mind drifts to a feeling of judgment when I hear someone has had sex at a young age, especially when they aren’t in love. While I am working on being less judgmental and more accepting, I still struggle with it nonetheless.
My boyfriend and I have been together for over a year (been official since May 2019). Our relationship has been great. He is my best friend and I love him. He knows that I’m not ready to have sex yet and has been understanding. Whenever we have talked about it, he says that he feels the same way and would only want to do it with someone really special. I always thought that was sweet and have always felt respected that he has never tried to pressure me into something I’m not ready for.
That’s how I have felt for most of our relationship. But a few weeks ago, something happened that might have changed that. There is a girl in our grade who I am friendly with, but she isn’t one of my good friends. She is the only other girl in my AP Latin class (and it’s been that way since Freshman year) so we have always sat together in it and pair up whenever our teacher has us do group work/group projects. Our teacher had us split into pairs to put together a presentation to explain the grammar of a section of the first book of the Aeneid for a free 100 in the grade book, and I partnered up with this girl. A few weeks ago the two of us were FaceTiming while finishing up the slideshow and after we finished we talked a little bit about gossip we had heard. After, she asked me how things were with my bf and if we had done anything. I told her that both of us wanted to wait. She got really interested in the conversation after I said that and told me that one of her friends from her soccer team (who goes to a different school) briefly dated my bf our Sophomore year and her friend said that they had sex while they were dating.
I didn’t believe her at the time. My bf has never lied to me before. He had told me about that girl before and said they kissed a few times, but that was it. I tried to just ignore it and go on with my life. The thought that he might have lied to me wouldn’t go away though, and a little over a week ago when we were FaceTiming I decided I needed to hear what he had to say about it. I tried to ask him as nonchalantly as possible how far he had gone with that girl. He told me they didn’t go beyond making out. I then told him that I had heard from one of the girl’s friends they had sex and I just wanted to hear the truth. He got all awkward and seemed embarrassed after I said that. He then said that I deserved to know and told me that they did have sex a few times while they were dating. I think he knew it made me uncomfortable, so he tried to make it better by saying it was almost two years ago and he only did it because he wanted to lose his virginity and that he loves me and I obviously mean more to him than that girl ever did. He then said he was really sorry for not telling me about her, but he said he didn’t wanna ruin our relationship. I said we were fine and made up an excuse to get off the call soon after.
Since then things have been awkward and strained, and I am horribly confused. He’s been extra sweet, but it isn’t helping. I can’t help but think about the other girl whenever he hugs on me or kisses me or snuggles up next to me. He’s still the same guy he was before, but things feel different now. Not only has he done something he acts like he would never do, but he omitted that fact for a year. I think I could have gotten over it if he was up front about it, but he wasn’t. I’m mortified I had to find out about it from the girl I sit next to in Latin.
I’ve always been taught that sex is sacred, and I thought he felt the same way. I can’t help but wonder if I should break up with him if I’m struggling this much. It would really suck, but it might be the best thing I can do for the both of us. After all, we’ll be going away for college less than a year from now and we wouldn’t have to see each other ever again. He honestly is a good person. He deserves someone who can get over his past.
On the other hand, I really do love him. Other than something that he did before we ever got together, he’s been a great boyfriend. No one makes me laugh harder than him and I am happy when I’m with him. Since we’ve been together at least, he’s had the same values as me. He’s always treated me with kindness and respect. Maybe it’s something that I can get over with time. Does this one thing warrant throwing away an almost 18 month long, otherwise great and healthy relationship? Can we work through this? Would breaking up with him be the best thing to do?
I can’t really talk to anyone about this because if I confided in my older brothers or sisters, they would get protective and wouldn’t let him get anywhere close to me ever again. I love my friends, but they really like to gossip, and I don’t want it to get back to my bf that I am thinking about breaking up with him. I am really struggling here and any advice would be greatly appreciated.
tl;dr: my boyfriend of over a year had sex with someone before we started dating and I just found out. It makes me feel insecure and confused and I think I might want to break up with him over it, but I’m not certain that’s what I want to do either.
submitted by ParisG5292003 to relationships [link] [comments]


2020.09.10 18:09 EricaShmericaOFF The Love After Lockup, episode Recap

John & Kristiana: Kristiana is feeling pretty good after “conversating” with her mother. She and John are trying to have a day-date while also scooting around the rules of the halfway house. She is only supposed to be out looking for jobs, not eating Italian food with her long haired fringe-enthusiast new husband. Kristiana made sure to ask the waitress for an application along with a menu, as they sat down and waited for complimentary breadsticks, to make sure she was abiding by the rules. Unfortunately someone from the halfway house had been following her, hip to her plan and pulled her out of the restaurant, taking her back to the facility. John was freaking out as he vaped nervously, wondering what will become of his new wife. He later received a phone call from his bride, informing him that she was being kept in the halfway house without being allowed to job seek, and would be receiving tickets. Hopefully they will get to honeymoon at IHOP soon.
Jessica & Maurice: It’s finally time for Maurice to meet the parents. Jessica’s mom and dad seemed to be nice and polite to Maurice, though they are a bit skeptical and concerned for their daughter, given his past. Within the first 5 minutes of the conversation, Maurice drops the bomb that he’s actually violating parole by being there (which is exactly what he promised Jessica he wouldn't say, oops…). Maurice did seem to make a good impression on the parental units, while Jessica kind of sat there with her head tilted and squinting like usual. I do not believe anyone mentioned he was a Compton Crip, but in pig latin, it would be ompton-cay rip-cay, so Jessica can start saying that instead to change it up and make it fancier. Jessica’s father had a man to man chat outside with Maurice claiming he was excited to finally have another guy around, and was hoping they could go fishing together and tinker around the house. They could even get a fishing boat together and name it “Fish & Crips” and take it out on weekends wearing matching goofy hats. When they actually catch a fish, they can take pictures together holding up both the fish and gang signs. This seems like the start to a great relationship.
Quaylon & Shavel: At the Welcome Home party, everyone is mingling until Shovel announces she has a surprise for the man of the hour… A new used car!! ( Very reminiscent of MTV’S “My Super Sweet 16”). Quaaylude was speechless, mostly because he had been locked up before even being of legal driving age. A lot of Shovel’s family thinks she is going above and beyond, and shouldn’t be doing all of this and spending so much when he just got out of prison and has yet proven he is worthy. However, Shovel believes in her man and relationship.Shovel’s mom went head to head with Mama Quaylandria, each concerned for their own childs’ well being in this new relationship. Cousin Dmark took Quay-Quay outside to discuss his intentions, and feels as though he’s just talking the talk. On the flip side, Quaylon’s family (namely his sister) are extremely concerned for his safety in Kansas City, and make it clear to Shovel that she’d better keep him out of trouble, or else.
Heather & Dylan: Heather is brushing her 4 inches of Ronald McDonald red hair, fresh out of the shower, putting on her makeup to get ready to pick up her felonious boyfriend Dylan who is being released. (It must be noted that she had the worst 80’s wood veneer bedroom set and multiple colored wigs hanging around her room. Do you think she’s an international spy?? Cosplay? An employee of “The Bada Bing”??). She did however discuss her troubled past and some unfortunate traumas and relationships she had endured, which was pretty sad. Heather arrived at the pickup spot in a Spring dress, embracing Dylan sensually to an uncomfortable level, as she cried tears of joy. We had the chance to get to hear a bit from Dylan, as he explained that prior to his incarceration, he had modeled, partied, used and sold drugs, and been a major player with the ladies. He admitted that he hadn’t known Heather for long before he was locked up, but appreciated her loyalty throughout his time in prison. He did, however, note some red flags he had seen… like the fact that she had his name tattooed in multiple languages she doesn’t speak on various parts of her body. He admitted she did seem a bit crazy, but she looked good enough in the dress she was wearing so he was open to seeing how things go. Heather thought a great first stop would be to a local car wash, where she planned to get dirty on the inside, while getting clean on the outside (it’s called multitasking, people). Something tells me that although these two got a late start in the season, they are going to make up for lost time, and fast!
Shawn & Destinie: Destinee returns home from her furniture store outing and questions Shawn about his credit card being declined. He somehow pedals his way out of that conversation, and Destinee shows him all 3000 things she did manage to buy with his card before she was cut off. (It also must be noted that she somehow had a beer in her hand within 30 seconds of walking through the door). The next morning we saw Destinie burning down the kitchen while cooking hashbrowns and confessing to getting drunk on hand sanitizer mixed with kool aid while in prison (and that was BEFORE Covid!). She also privately admitted to doing heroin while in prison, as it’s her favorite drug of choice, but didn’t want Shawn to know. Realizing that he could see himself eating burnt hash browns for life, Shawn brought his friend along to the jewelry store to look at engagement rings for Destinie. His friend made a lot of prison jokes, as he questioned Shawn’s sanity in wanting to propose so quickly. (Hey, if Destinie says “yes” they can have a hand sanitizekoolaid toast to celebrate!). He purchased a $2000 rose gold ring for his precious jewel, and headed home. Once there, Destinie had requested that Shawn help blow up her inflatable unicorn float before he headed out to work. Little did she know that while he was blowing up the raft, his ex girlfriend/baby mama Kelly was blowing up his phone. Once Destinie found out who he was talking to, she immediately demanded a plane ticket home, claiming that Shawn was a liar and she was done with him. She went outside to smoke, with Shawn following closely behind trying to calm her down and explain that SHE is his only “Destinie”. He had to leave for work, worried if his potential fiance would be there when he returned, only to have Destinie walk up to the car door and punch him repeatedly in the head. I guess we will have to wait until next week to see if they made up after the roadside takedown, or if Destinie is out of there (along with Shawn’s 50k bond money)......
Tyrice & Chanda: Chanda is still choking down the same chicken wing from last week as we see Tyrice drive her to the bus station. She has to be at her halfway house which is about 3 hours away by bus. He sets her up with $200 for her trip back, which she claims is for “hygiene” (that’s a whole lot of deodorant and toothpaste, but a girl’s gotta be minty fresh ta death!) Next we saw Tyrice back at his place, sans the blue suit, trying to call Chanda but only to repeatedly get her voicemail. He gets a visit from his son, Lil Ty, who tries to bring up the fact that Chanda could have been using Big Ty the entire time, but Tyrice doesn’t agree. He feels he would know if he was being taken, and he knows no woman could resist the blue suit. Maybe Chanda’s just washing her hair with her $200 worth of shampoo, and will pick up the phone next week.
Scott & Lindsey: Lindsey is finally coming home from prison, and Scott couldn’t be more excited. We finally got to see Lindsey on the outside, who 5 minutes into the free world is already going on a shopping spree at CVS . Scott was waiting for Lindsey at the airport yet again, so they could finally meet in person and start their new life together. She ran into Scott’s arm, planting one right on his inflated lips as they sped off in Scott’s “drug dealer looking truck”, as Lindsey so eloquently described it. She has to quarantine for 14 days but luckily gets to do so at her new house with Scott instead of having to be at a halfway house. However, once she sees the house she feels a bit duped. Not only had Scott not hired the interior decorator from the first episode, but apparently he forgot to sheetrock, spackle, paint, remove nasty carpeting, and clean the dog hair out of the bathtub. Lindsey complained incessantly to Scott about the “nasty ass” house, claiming she was promised Disney World but got the County Fair (I found that to be a totally great and fitting analogy… though she could have said “what you ordered vs. Wish.com, but being locked up for a few years, she might not be up on that meme analogy). Since Scott uprooted his entire life to be with his ladyfelon, bought a house, and did everything she had asked, he felt Lindsey was being ungrateful. He tried to console her only to be met with a crazy meth-faced fury which would have made me back out of the house slowly with both dogs and drive off, never to return. Lindsey lay alone on the bed, claiming she may have “missed the mark” on this one, as she had previously had a lot of rich older boyfriends who apparently built her nicer closets On the bright side, Lindsey is stuck in the “county fair” house for 14 days of quarantine and then some. She can just HGTV the house herself. With all of that rage, she looks like she’d be great at “demo day” if nothing else….
submitted by EricaShmericaOFF to loveafterlockup [link] [comments]


2020.09.09 14:00 rusticgorilla Trump's Election Day vaccine "miracle"

Welcome, dear readers, to my semi-regular coronavirus roundup.
Housekeeping:

EDIT: TRUMP ADMITTED TO KNOWING DANGER OF COVID WEEKS BEFORE ACTING

Bob Woodward's new book reveals that Trump was aware that the coronavirus was dangerous and "more deadly than even your strenuous flus" even as he publicly downplayed the threat and failed to act to save lives. (article now updated with audio of Trump's interview)
"This is deadly stuff," Trump told Woodward on February 7.
In a series of interviews with Woodward, Trump revealed that he had a surprising level of detail about the threat of the virus earlier than previously known. "Pretty amazing," Trump told Woodward, adding that the coronavirus was maybe five times "more deadly" than the flu.
Trump also admitted to intentionally downplaying the threat:
"I wanted to always play it down," Trump told Woodward on March 19, even as he had declared a national emergency over the virus days earlier. "I still like playing it down, because I don't want to create a panic."

Election day vaccine

A group of nine leading pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies pledged on Tuesday to only seek approval for Covid-19 vaccines demonstrated to be safe and effective.
The pledge comes as Trump hypes the possibility of a vaccine before Election Day. His timeline has been pushed forward from “by the end of the year” to “before November 1st” and, most recently, “during the month of October.”
During his Labor Day press-briefing-turned-campaign-event, Trump said: "[It's] going to be done in a very short period of time -- could even have it during the month of October” (clip).
Trump went on to explicitly ties the vaccine to his re-election schedule: “We'll have the vaccine soon, maybe before a special date. You know what date I'm talking about” (clip).
Despite saying the quiet part out loud himself, the president tried to cast Joe Biden and Kamala Harris as the ones politicizing the vaccine process: “They’re going to make the vaccine into a negative… They’re saying ‘wow, Trump’s pulled this off, let’s disparage the vaccine.’ That’s so bad for this country, that’s so bad for the world to even say that and that’s what they’re saying” (clip). Unfortunately, many media outlets have portrayed the issue as a “both sides” argument.
Federal officials and health experts say Trump’s Election-oriented timeline is unlikely. NPR spoke with Moncef Slaoui, chief adviser for the administration's vaccine development program, who said he expects to have "enough vaccine to immunize the U.S. population by the middle of 2021.”
Case in point, development on the vaccine Trump was rumored to be betting on, the AstraZeneca-Oxford project, was put on hold due to a suspected serious adverse reaction in a participant.
But the point may not be to have a vaccine fully available to the public; Trump can simply claim the “deep state” is holding things up, blaming Biden/Harris for the pandemic under his watch. Furthermore, experts say there is no way our government and existing infrastructure will be ready to distribute, administer, and track doses by November. Health departments will also need an infusion of federal aid, a proposal that seems out of reach with a Republican-controlled Senate afraid to spend any more money during the pandemic.
...many health departments are so overwhelmed with the current costs of the pandemic — such as for testing and contact tracing — that they can’t reserve money for the vaccine work to come. Health departments will need to hire people to administer the vaccines and systems to track them, and pay for supplies such as protective medical masks, gowns and gloves, as well as warehouses and refrigerator space.

America alone

Meanwhile, the U.S. is backing down from the global fight against the pandemic, further enshrining Trump’s “America First” perspective into official policy. The Trump administration declined to join a global effort to develop, manufacture, and equitably distribute a coronavirus vaccine, in part because the World Health Organization is involved. U.S. allies including Japan, Germany, and the European Commission back the effort.
“The United States will continue to engage our international partners to ensure we defeat this virus, but we will not be constrained by multilateral organizations influenced by the corrupt World Health Organization and China,” said Judd Deere, a spokesman for the White House.
  • Further reading: The Trump administration said it won't pay more than $60 million in dues it owes to the World Health Organization.
The U.S. Agency for International Development, in charge of distributing global assistance related to the pandemic, is shutting down its only pandemic-focused task force. Other agency bureaus and divisions will take on its functions.

Sturgis comes home

South Dakota (+120%), Iowa (+81%), and North Dakota (+66%) have seen the largest 2-week increase in COVID-19 cases in the last two weeks, compared to the two weeks before.
These three states were also the “epicenter” of the Sturgis motorcycle rally last month. The event packed nearly 500,000 people into a small town in South Dakota, with rallygoers attending from - and returning to - all around the country. Photos and reports from Sturgis documented a startling lack of face masks and social distancing precautions.
According to a new study, over 250,000 coronavirus cases can be contributed to the rally. Assuming a cost of $46,000/case, the authors estimated the rally cost $12.2 billion. “This is enough to have paid each of the estimated 462,182 rally attendees $26,553.64 not to attend,” they write.
SD, IA, and ND do not have statewide face mask mandates. In fact, the Dakotas are two of just five states that do not allow local officials to require masks (the others are ID, MO, and OK). Iowa Gov. Kim Reynolds has been told by the White House that the state’s outbreak is the steepest in the nation and urged officials to require mask-wearing statewide. Reynolds has yet to do so.

Alabama schools

Alabama has the fourth-most daily new cases per 100k people (after ND, SD, and IA) despite a statewide face mask order. The state has largely lifted all social distancing measures and has encouraged schools to reopen with in-person classes and sports. According to a NYT database, four-year universities in Alabama have over 4,000 coronavirus cases just weeks after opening.
The University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa accounts for over 1,300 of the cases. Professors at the school were reportedly told by the administration not to talk about the outbreak - not even to inform students if someone in their class tests positive. The mayor of Tuscaloosa let bars near the university reopen on Tuesday.
  • Further reading: Alabama is starting to see a payoff from its mask mandate, in place since mid-July. New covid cases have been cut in half over the past month and coronavirus patients admitted to hospitals fell to the lowest level since June.
  • Remember the news articles praising Trump’s new “tone” on masks? During Monday’s press conference, Trump tried to bully a reporter into taking off his face mask when asking a question (clip). The reporter, Jeff Mason of Reuters, refused. Apparently, this annoyed Trump so much that he was still griping about it on Twitter Tuesday (clip).

Trump pushes for sports

After weeks of haranguing schools to bring back sports, Trump has reportedly offered Big Ten football teams access to the national government’s reserve of rapid COVID-19 tests.
The new, cheaper […] tests could be the key that unlocks the door back to the Horseshoe and stadiums around the conference. And the White House might be willing to assist in that effort by potentially designating part of its supply to the Big Ten after buying 150 million rapid tests last week from Abbott Laboratories.
The president is so attached to the idea of college football resuming that he is pushing the Big Ten conference to go ahead without the participation of three schools, blaming the governors of Michigan, Illinois, and Maryland for the conference’s vote to cancel.

Mitch plays games

The Republican-controlled Senate is planning on voting on a scaled-down coronavirus relief package as early as this week. The “skinny” bill is unlikely to become law as Democrats feel it does not adequately address the magnitude of the crisis the nation is facing. McConnell is hoping a Senate vote on coronavirus aid - any aid - will help vulnerable Republicans up for re-election.
The Republican bill is expected to include a federal unemployment benefit, another round of Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) funding, and more money for coronavirus testing and schools, as well as liability protections from lawsuits related to the virus. McConnell didn't release a price tag for the forthcoming bill, but it is expected to be at least $500 billion — half of the $1 trillion package Republicans previously unveiled in late July.
One of the reasons - perhaps the main reason - for the breakdown of relief bill negotiations may be new White House Chief of Staff Mark Meadows. Rep. Gerry Connolly (D-Va.), who served with Meadows on the Oversight Committee, told The Hill:
“Closing deals is not Mark Meadows’s strong suit. His whole track record is: blow it up… If you ask yourself what’s the difference between April and May, when we did reach big, broad bipartisan consensus, and today, the variable is Mark Meadows.”

Miscellaneous news

Lost in the Sauce was so long this week that I had to omit a couple of sections. I’ll include them here instead.
Immigration: Federal Judge Dolly Gee ordered DHS to cease using hotels as detention facilities for migrant children it seeks to expel from the border.
Gee said the use of hotels for detention purposes violates the Flores agreement because the locations lack sufficient oversight, state licenses to hold minors and standards for the care of young children. Minors have also faced a "woefully inadequate" process to seek the help of lawyers, who have been barred from entering the hotels, Gee added, citing declarations from attorneys who said they struggled to reach detained children.
  • Further reading: “Watchdog confirms botched family reunifications kept migrant children waiting in vans overnight,” NBC; “Trump nominee had role in removing prosecutor opposed to family separations,” Guardian
Immigration: The Trump administration has drafted a proposal that would dramatically expand the number of people required to provide biometrics for their immigration applications, while also increasing the personal information the government can demand, such as eye scans, voice prints, DNA, and photographs for facial recognition.
Immigration: The Border Patrol made a dramatized YouTube video depicting a Spanish-speaking attacker stabbing and killing a man in a dark alley after escaping from U.S. agents - “a clip apparently created to dramatize President Trump’s depiction of migrants as fearsome criminals.” The agency removed the video following backlash.
Environment: The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration opened an inquiry earlier this year into whether Trump political appointees illegally weakened rules meant to protect whales from oil industry seismic airgun blasting. Then, just as quietly, it halted the probe.
Environment: The Trump administration proposed a rule change that would make it easier to permit oil and gas drilling operations in national forests. The move comes as a watchdog report reveals the oil and gas industry has been allowed to pay far less than usual to the government for the right to drill on public lands under a controversial Trump administration coronavirus relief policy. Furthermore, the administration is seeking to fast track environmental reviews of dozens of major energy and infrastructure projects during the COVID-19 pandemic, including oil and gas drilling, hazardous fuel pipelines, wind farms, and highway projects in multiple states.
Environment: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service issued a proposal that would allow the government to deny habitat protections for endangered animals and plants in areas that would see greater economic benefits from being developed — a change critics said could open lands to more energy development and other activities.
World: Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced sanctions against two International Criminal Court officials -- the Trump administration's most aggressive move yet to try to deter an ICC investigation into possible war crimes by US military and intelligence officials.
World: How Donald Trump took down the Robert Mueller of Latin America: At the center of the story is an alleged quid pro quo between Donald Trump and Jimmy Morales, a former television comedian who was elected president of Guatemala.
submitted by rusticgorilla to Keep_Track [link] [comments]


2020.09.08 02:32 PopularTradition Finished Narcos: Mexico - Some Thoughts

Not sure what kind of people are on this subreddit and the general biases that exist here. However, I am going to shoot from the hip as usual and write about my uncensored thoughts.
Finished Narcos: Mexico Seasons 1/2:
Pros:
  1. Excellent cinamatography. Compare this to El Dragon and you can see why (still a decent show though).
  2. Strong on the historical accuracy. I enjoyed bits about zooming out and talking about the 80's in general. Comparing the largest coccaine busts to date in Season 2 Ep 9.
  3. Packing some heat and occassional references to gun history like the scene in the elevator with the guns Hitler's guard used.
  4. Realistic deaths.
  5. Showed the brutality of the narco subculture.
  6. Painfully and accurately portrayed the corruption in Mexico from politicians, police, and even the military.
  7. Did better at showing that these are just people that needed to eat (that completely got fat off the money/power) due to ruthless politicians hoarding all the wealth.
  8. Shows how much more money narcotraficantes brought in compared to oil in the 80's. That $4 bil vs the $15 bil USD was scary. Mexico's economy was heavily oil dependent at about 40% of the economey in the 80's.
  9. Diego Luna, José María Yazpik, Fernanda Urrejola, Teresa Ruiz, etc did excellent work.
  10. Shows that the Americans were not just the white saviors they were shown to be in the original Narcos in Colombia.
  11. Flows nicely.
  12. Did better with showing Felix's bad side, but still mostly glorified the dude.
  13. Less American-Centric than Narcos in terms of interpretation. There was a fair amount of fuck ups on the USA side and criticisms of the CIA, FBI shooting up civilians in the pueblo, etc.
  14. Accurately portrayed the corruption in Mexico.
  15. Beautiful country-side shots.
  16. I enjoyed how they showed what part of the country they were in and the map visuals when they could.
  17. Brutally attacked the rich of Mexico with Alexandria Gulimant probably being the only redeeming wealth "fresa" (although she cared more about endangered animals than people which is common among the white power class in the USA as well. Easier to care about environmental issues than socioeconomic ones especially if that threatens your power). Honestly, she was complicit in all of it too though. Maybe her enviornmental care was just virtue signaling.
  18. The top-down authoritarian approach present with the PRI's 90 year dominance (for example) is shown to largely be hurting the people. You need to listen to your employees even if they are not your partners.
  19. It pays to forgive sometimes, but ultimately most solutions are solved with violence in that subculture.
  20. Shows some tensions between Mexicans/Mexican-Americans with Kiki that could have been fleshed out more. I guess it is fair they would not send a Mexican-American who could not speak Spanish well, but would send a white American who could not speak Spanish well because well, yeah you know.
  21. Diego did a fantastic job at going from good cop to resentful, unforgiving and eventually defeated (but still cunning) drug kingpin.
Cons
A. Paints a dismal picture of Mexico. Accurate, but unfair in my opinion when it comes to the general Mexican people.
  1. I have been here living near Puerto Vallarta, Mexico since March of this year. I have been coming here since the early 2000's. I have witnessed corruption a few times. Some Mexican nationals on an ATV run from Guadalajara to PV were kidnapped (1 killed) in front of the Costco here two months ago. The New Generation Jalisco Cartel posted a few Twitter videos flexing their firepower a few months ago. A drug lord was recently arrested in Guanajuato. El Chapo's son is giving food to hospitals in Sinaloa. El Chapo is saying he is depressed in Colorado's maximum security prison due to COVID restrictions. This is still ongoing.
  2. Banorte, one of Mexico's 4 largest commercial banks by assets, was caught in a drug money laundering operation in the late 90's.
  3. Mexican politicians are corrupt as hell. Current president AMLO's brother was recently caught accepting a $1 mil USD bribe. Corruption is up in Mexico. Even the US ambassador and former US Ambassador before him warned not to invest here. Seems like nothing has changed.
  4. Displaying how easy these narcotraficantes can control THE MILITARY in the 80's may be accurate, but paints an extremely bad picture of Mexico from the eyes of an American viewer (and international audience) that has never been here.
  5. Even though the Military has been patrolling the carretera 200 in response to the Jalisco Cartel - I have no doubt these cats would murder me if I was on the wrong side of Mexican politics. I have no faith in 911 (same as the USA) if I called it down here. Private security is the way to go. Bribes are still very effective; however, I have never had to make one thankfully. I would also not like to contribute to a system of corruption.
  6. Mexican police - at least I have met some good federales, but no doubt they would do something unethical if their masters told them too. Good news is that at least a few dozens officers got fired in central Jalisco for narco connections.
  7. Narcos still control large swaths of Mexico. I just believe they are more educated and know not to shoot some mofo in the club over some petty shit. They have adapted and will continue to.
  8. Does not mention, but clearly displays the anti-intellectualism of Mexico unlike El Dragon which tries to push multiculturality and Mexican technological prowess. From either the foreign or Mexican perspective, it does not support a view that Mexicans can achieve intellectually. Diego Luna is our best bet and some example that guy is...
  9. No one cashes in their chips. Even the promising Teresa Ruiz pushes it with the Tijuanna cartel until she gets arrested in a warehouse. She came off as so powerful and sophisticated. So much for Mexican pride.
  10. If I was a tourist ignorant of Mexico, I would never want to come here after watching this show. 1986 is still pretty close especially if the narco problem is still ongoing.
  11. Shows (intentionality of the directors and editors aside) Mexicans are incapable of long term organization. They eventually break apart.
  12. Shows that even the common people are active participants or complicit with these narcotraficantes that "own" whole cities or towns because they know everyone and have guns.
  13. Does not delve into the history of why Mexico and Latin America is so corrupt.
  14. Start at the 300 year Spanish colonalization and extraction of resources.
  15. Continue to US involvement at all stages of Mexico from 1821 onward.
  16. See Mexican-American war of 1846-1848 where we took half of Mexico's terrirory by force for $15 mil at the time and forced then Mexican president Santa Anna to sign it. We provoked the war. I do not apologize for it personally. Mexican corruption and disorganization also led to us winning that war. It is just easier to blame the USA than take responsibility for what you can within your own country. And I sure as hell would not give back Texas, California, New Mexico, Arizona, etc. However, I question if Mexico would have the orgaization to develop those terriorties seeing that the power players in Mexico City do not care about the North. The North of Mexico is its own culture more aligned with the USA. Baja California is totally off the national power grid.
  17. The best way to balance understanding why all this corruption and poverty came to be would be to read Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of Pillage of a Continent by Eduardo Galeano. Although....that would make the show less sexy and appealing to the American (and even Mexican) viewer.
  18. I guess we have to settle for Walt's explanation that "everybody's gotta eat" and Guillermo González Calderoni's "This is just how it works down here - you do not understand!"
  19. Obviously and accurately showed the technological superiority of the USA. Glad it was led by Kiki who is Mexican-American leading on that, but Walt eventually took a classic American role in season 2.
  20. Kiki representing the USA in Season 1 was a great counternarrative to the "white savior complex" Hollywood is heavily criticized for (#OscarsaresoWhite).
  21. Falls into many Mexican stereotypes (Bandito lifestyle of Francisco Arellano Felix, the roughness and immaturity of the Sinaloan cowboys, drinking too much alcohol, etc.). All accurate especially for narcotraficantes.
  22. The dark Mexican/indigenous Mexican bad and lighter skin Mexican good or at least successful is imagery shown all throughout the show. Other than Azul - Season 2 Episode 10 everyone around the table is a light skinned Mexican. And yes, there is a power differential in this society. A pigmentocracy if you will. How Rafa went down was probably accurate, but sad. The dude tried to get clean, but eventually could not control himself. Also, the darker Mexicans are portrayed as the workers, being shooting at others, people getting shot, etc. Again, accurate. Especially for the 1980's. However, it is just too bad that is how things are still down here.
  23. Language thoughts -
  24. more que's than mande's than I expected - did not hear mande once.
  25. all the creative Mexican slang (surprised they did not used naco at all).
  26. The Whole Marvel Universe of Narcotraficantes feels cool, but ultimately serves to glorify these criminals.
  27. Weak on showing discrimination against Mexicans/Mexican-Americans by white Americans. Not necessary. Shown once or twice. However, the USA is still dealing with race problems and I have no doubt it was rough for a guy like Kiki in the 80's in the lowest department on the totem pole (DEA). If Trump is still using the "bad hombre" line, can you imagine what was said in the 80's in Fresno, CA? USA's moral standing needs to be taken down a notch.
  28. Did a fair job showing the nasty ways the USA meddled in Latin America. But like the Spanish ultimately won the narrative of conquistadors over the defeated indigenous of mesoamerica - I believe the USA ultimately wins the moral narrative battle over Mexico simply due to all the corruption and violence of these narcotraficantes.
  29. I do sometimes wonder if there were any good apples in the Mexican upperclass. However, I would not waste my time finding them. Sounds like they were all complicit in the game.
I like Diego Luna a lot. Would not change him for some white Argentinian guy playing a Mexican like El Dragon. He is super representative of the majority of Mexicans (and yes, they have a Vida Aspiracional problem with their media here). First saw him in Star Wars. Watched his Pan y Circo in Amazon Prime. The guy is both privileged (born into a degree of wealth), woke, and trying to get other Mexicans to be woke (lot of Mexicans still think this is not racist and part of their national culture...).
That all said I expect more from the guy in influencing this script to positively portray Mexicans. Perhaps that is boring, but my suggestions are:
  1. Have someone with the sense to walk off, turn their life around (but still be in touch with them), etc. Diego's 2nd wife is not that deep in the game and she has kids. Francisco tried, but ultimately does not want to be a snitch and gets shot by 30 people despite knowing he has a kid on the way...
  2. I would have liked to see some forgiveness from someone. But if that is not true then forget it. I prefer the truth over good PR for Mexico. It is always eye for an eye. Predictable. Diego at first had the restraint of a warrior in Season 1. That eventually wore off as he got drunk with power.
  3. Show student protests against this stuff (then you find out nasty stuff like the Tlateloco Massacre of 1968 or the 43 students that went missing in 2014 on a school trip to Mexico City).
  4. Show someone in the pueblo that refuses to be complicit in narco money. It would have been nice to have that counterbalance of an honest Mexican constantly being observed, but not bothered by these narcos. Doubt those sociopaths would care.
submitted by PopularTradition to narcos [link] [comments]


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